Notes - DISEASES of the RESPIRATORY TRACT Chapter24 THE...

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DISEASES of the RESPIRATORY TRACT Chapter 24
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THE RESPIRATORY TRACT Major entry into body for M/Os UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT (URT) Nose, pharynx, associated structures LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT (LRT) Trachea, bronchi, alveoli of lungs DEFENSES : ciliated mucous membranes, alveolar macrophages,  IgA antibodies
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BACTERIAL DISEASES of the URT 1. Streptococcal Pharyngitis 2. Scarlet Fever 3. Diptheria 4. Otitis Media
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1. STREPTOCOCCAL PHARYNGITIS Strep Throat Streptococcus pyogenes Group A  β  hemolytic Gram +ve coccus (GAS, 80 serotypes) Also causes impetigo, erysipelas, acute bacterial endocarditis Symptoms very similar to viral pharyngitis Strep throat may lead to tonsillitis and/or otitis media, if untreated may lead to sequelae  VIRULENCE FACTORS:   TRANSMISSION:  re s pira to ry ro ute DIAGNOSIS:   Culture of throat swab or quick agglutination test DOC : pe nic illin
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Strep throat Enlarged and reddened adenoids White, pus-filled lesions on tonsils
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Streptococcal Pharyngitis Also called  strep throat Streptococcus pyogenes Resistant to phagocytosis Streptokinases lyse clots Streptolysins are cytotoxic Diagnosis by  enzyme immunoassay (EIA) tests Figure 24.3
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2. SCARLET FEVER Streptococcus pyogenes  - strains producing  ERYTHROGENIC TOXIN Toxin due to prophage SYMPTOMS:  reddish-pink skin rash due to hypersensitivity  Also see strawberry like spots on tongue TRANSMISSION : inhalation of infective droplets Occurs after a strep throat infection DOC : penicillin for pharyngitis
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Figure 24.4
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3. DIPHTHERIA (Respiratory Diphtheria) Corynebacterium diphtheriae   Non-spore forming, Gram +ve pleomorphic rod TRANSMISSION : re s pira to ry ro ute Prophage (lysogenic conversion)   exotoxin that inhibits protein synthesis  in vital organs SYMPTOMS : s o re  thro a t, fe ve r, we a kne s s Grayish, tough pseudomembrane covers throat Membrane contains M/Os, fibrin, dead tissue, WBCs  May block air passage ---> suffocation PREVENTION : DTa P va c c ine  (diphthe ria  to xo id) DOC   plus   DAT = diphtheria antitoxin to  neutralize toxin
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Figure 24.5
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Figure 24.6
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4. OTITIS MEDIA Infection of the middle ear Often after a cold or strep throat Or from contaminated water; eardrum injuries Streptococcus pneumoniae  = most common cause Hemophilus influenze Moraxella catarrhalis Streptococcus pyogenes Staphylococcus aureus
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Notes - DISEASES of the RESPIRATORY TRACT Chapter24 THE...

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