Specific%20DefensesS10

Specific%20DefensesS10 - SPECIFIC DEFENSES of the HOST: THE...

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SPECIFIC DEFENSES of the HOST: THE IMMUNE RESPONSE Chapter 17
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SPECIFIC IMMUNITY (ADAPTIVE IMMUNITY) SPECIFICITY  = recognize a SPECIFIC FOREIGN SUBSTANCE “NON-SELF” or foreign “SELF” ie your own body’s cells FOREIGN  = bacteria, viruses, pollen, transplanted tissues etc. MEMORY : If you recover from a specific infection, you are immune to it  when exposed again ANTIGEN  (Ag) = substance that stimulates an immune response SPECIFIC ACQUIRED IMMUNITY  is MEDIATED by  LYMPHOCYTES T cells (Thymus development, Cellular Immunity) B cells ( Bone marrow development, Humoral Immunity)
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SPECIFIC ACQUIRED IMMUNITY B cells: originate and mature in bone marrow; produce ANTIBODY  T cells: originate in bone marrow and mature in Thymus; have cell  surface receptor (TCR) that recognizes Ag on the surface of a TARGET  CELL T cells are subdivided into functional categories ACQUIRED IMMUNITY - protection that develops over a lifetime  against a specific Ag (microbe, foreign substance) Can occur  NATURALLY  or  ARTIFICIALLY Can occur  ACTIVELY  or  PASSIVELY
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TYPES of ACQUIRED IMMUNITY Naturally Acquired Active Immunity  - person acquires  immunity naturally when encounters the pathogen Naturally Acquired Passive Immunity  - natural  transfer of preformed Ab from mother to fetus or infant Artificially Acquired Active Immunity  - immunity  acquired after vaccination against a specific infectious agent Artificially Acquired Passive Immunity  - immunity  acquired after injection of preformed Ab 
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SPECIFIC ACQUIRED IMMUNE SYSTEM HUMORAL IMMUNE SYSTEM B lymphocytes Antibody mediated  CELL MEDIATED IMMUNE SYSTEM T lymphocytes Mediated by direct cell-cell interactions Effective vs. intracellular viruses, fungi, protozoa, transplants, cancer  cells
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ANTIGENS Substance that elicits an immune response Usually large and usually a protein, but can be polysaccharide, nucleoprotein  or glycolipid ( lipids and N.A. are not v good antigens) A pathogen contains a large number of different Ag on it’s surface Pili, cell wall,  capsules, outer membrane proteins, flagella EPITOPE  = ANTIGENIC DETERMINANT HAPTEN =  molecule too small to elicit an immune response by itself but  can bind an Ab CARRIER  = large molecule used to “carry” a hapten in order to elicit an  immune response
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ANTIBODIES Proteins produced by B cells ---->  PLASMA CELLS Found on surface of B cells as Ag receptor AND
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Specific%20DefensesS10 - SPECIFIC DEFENSES of the HOST: THE...

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