Nonspecific%20Host%20Defenses%20and%20SystemsF10

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Nonspecific Host Defenses and Host Systems Chapter 16
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TERMINOLOGY RESISTANCE  =  ability to prevent disease from occurring SUSCEPTIBILITY  =  vulnerability to disease A lack of resistance NON-SPECIFIC RESISTANCE  =  defense mechanisms against  ANY PATHOGEN ie not selective for a specific pathogen Skin & mucosa; phagocytosis, inflammation, fever SPECIFIC RESISTANCE  = defense mechanisms to protect  against a specific pathogen The specific acquired immune system  Cell mediated immunity (CMI) = T cells Humoral immunity = B cells & antibodies (Ab)
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DEFENSE MECHANISMS I n t a c t s k i n M u c o u s m e m b r a n e s F i r s t L i n e o f D e f e n s e P h a g o c y t e s I n f l a m m a t i o n F e v e r A n t i m i c r o b i a l s u b s t a n c e s S e c o n d L i n e o f D e f e n s e N O N S P E C I F I C B L y m p h o c y t e s A g s t i m u l a t i o n P l a s m a c e l l s S e c r e t e A b B u r s a m a t u r a t i o n H U M O R A L I M M U N I T Y T L y m p h o c y t e s A g s t i m u l a t i o n E f f e c t o r C e l l s T h y m u s m a t u r a t i o n C E L L M E D I A T E D I M M U N I T Y T h i r d L i n e o f D e f e n s e S P E C I F I C I M M U N E S Y S T E M
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An Overview of the Body’s Defenses Figure 16.1 ANIMATION Host Defenses: The Big Picture
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THE DIFFERENT COMPONENTS of the IMMUNE SYSTEM INTERACT WITH EACH OTHER They are NOT mutually exclusive
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INNATE IMMUNITY Present at birth Always present and provides rapid responses Non specific to pathogen NO MEMORY Activated by TOLL LIKE RECEPTORS ( TLR’s ) proteins  found on the membranes of defensive cells TLR’s attach to pathogen associated molecular patterns  ( PAMP’s ) such as LPS, cells release chemicals that regulate  the immune response.
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NON-SPECIFIC ( Innate) DEFENSES, First Line of Defense PHYSICAL BARRIERS M/O enter via cuts, burns, surgical incisions mucus  prevents tracts from drying out MECHANICAL BARRIERS Tears, Lacrimal apparatus Saliva Mucus, traps microorganisms Cilia on cells of lower respiratory tract Mucus-coated hairs of nose Flow of urine cleanses the urethra, vaginal secretions
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NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES #2 CHEMICAL FACTORS SEBUM - from sebaceous glands contains unsaturated fatty acids Inhibit growth of some bacteria Keeps pH of skin low Protective coating over the skin - PERSPIRATION – eliminates wastes and flushes MO LYSOZYME - degrades peptidoglycan layer of Gram positive bacteria Tears, saliva, perspiration, tissue fluids, nasal secretions - GASTRIC JUICE: HCl, pH : 1.2 – 3 - VAGINAL SECRETIONS: acidic pH, and mucus
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NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES #3 CHEMICAL FACTORS  continued STOMACH ACID - most bacteria are killed due to the low pH TRANSFERRIN - iron binding protein in blood Prevents bacteria from utilizing the iron
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This note was uploaded on 01/12/2011 for the course BIOL 246 taught by Professor Kocache during the Fall '10 term at George Mason.

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