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Bacteria - BACTERIA C hapte 11 r BACTERIA r rge d ria...

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BACTERIA Chapter 11
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BACTERIA Earlier Editions of Bergey’s Manual grouped bacteria by: Morphology Staining reactions Presence of endospores Biochemical reactions Recent editions use Molecular biology techniques Similarity at molecular level (r-RNA)
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Goals TO LEARN THE FOLLOWING: Someof theeubacterial groups and someof their distinguishing characteristics 1. Proteobacteria (all Gram –ve) 2. Non-proteobacteria Gram –vs bacteria 3. Gram +vebacteria Thediversity among bacteria Thedifferent functions of bacteria GOOD and BAD
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A dichotomous key for classifying major groups of bacteria Gives you an either or choice so that only one statement is true
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The Prokaryotes
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GROUP 1: PROTEOBACTERIA Includes most of theGram–vebacteria Very large and diverse group of eubacteria Chemoheterotrophic Largest taxonomic group Divided into 5 phyla 1. ALPHA 2. BETA 3. GAMMA 4. DELTA 5. EPSILON
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THE ALPHA PROTEOBACTERIA Require very little nutrients to survive Includes many agriculturally important bacteria & someimportant plant and human pathogens 1. Azospirillum : SHAPE: Gram –verod Important in agriculture Lives in roots of someplants nitrogen fixation 2. Rickettsia : SHAPE: Gram –verods or coccobacilli Obligate intracellular parasites Transmitted by insect bites (lice, ticks) Causespotted fevers in humans Rickettsia rickettsii –Rocky Mtn. Spotted Fever
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Figure 11.1 Rickettsias
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ALPHA PROTEOBACTERIA cont’d 3. Rhizobium and Agrobacterium Rhizobium– livein roots of bean plants Form root nodules in theseplants N fixation Agrobacteriumtumefaciens does NOT N-fix Inserts plasmid into plant cell Plant pathogen crown gall 4. Caulobacter - aquatic env; usestalks to attach to surface - Divideby budding
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Figures 11.2b, 11.3 The Alphaproteobacteria Haveprosthecae Caulobacter : Stalked bacteria found in lakes Hyphomicrobium : Budding bacteria found in lakes
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5. Brucella SHAPE: Coccobacilli Obligateparasites of mammals Usually transmitted to humans by contact with animals Can evadeimmunesystembecausethey survivephagocytosis Causebrucellosis (undulant fever)
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6. Nitrobacter and Nitrosomonas Gramnegativerods Important nitrifying bacteria Chemoautotrophs Oxidizeammoniumto nitrite( NO 2 -) and nitrate(NO 3 -)
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7. Wolbachia Most common infectious bacterial genus in theworld Liveinsideinsects and invertebrates Somecan causedisease Others can turn maleinsects into females
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THE BETA PROTEOBACTERIA 1. Thiobacillus Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, important in thesulfur cycle 2. Burkholderia: - SHAPE: Gram negativemotilerods previously grouped with Pseudomonas.
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