Bacteria - BACTERIA C hapte 11 r BACTERIA r rge d ria...

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BACTERIA Chapter 11
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BACTERIA Earlier Editions of Bergey’s Manual grouped bacteria by: Morphology Staining reactions Presence of endospores Biochemical reactions Recent editions use Molecular biology techniques Similarity at molecular level (r-RNA)
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Goals TO LEARN THE FOLLOWING: Some of the eubacterial groups and some of their distinguishing characteristics 1. Proteobacteria (all Gram –ve) 2. Non-proteobacteria Gram –vs bacteria 3. Gram +ve bacteria The diversity among bacteria The different functions of bacteria GOOD and BAD
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A dichotomous key for classifying major groups of bacteria Gives you an either or choice so that only one statement is true
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The Prokaryotes
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GROUP 1: PROTEOBACTERIA Includes most of the Gram –ve bacteria Very large and diverse group of eubacteria Chemoheterotrophic Largest taxonomic group Divided into 5 phyla 1. ALPHA 2. BETA 3. GAMMA 4. DELTA 5. EPSILON
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THE ALPHA PROTEOBACTERIA Require very little nutrients to survive Includes many agriculturally important bacteria & some important plant and human pathogens 1. Azospirillum : SHAPE: Gram –ve rod Important in agriculture Lives in roots of some plants nitrogen fixation 2. Rickettsia : SHAPE: Gram –ve rods or coccobacilli Obligate intracellular parasites Transmitted by insect bites (lice, ticks) Cause spotted fevers in humans Rickettsia rickettsii –Rocky Mtn. Spotted Fever
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Figure 11.1 Rickettsias
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ALPHA PROTEOBACTERIA cont’d 3. Rhizobium and Agrobacterium Rhizobium – live in roots of bean plants Form root nodules in these plants N fixation Agrobacterium tumefaciens does NOT N-fix Inserts plasmid into plant cell Plant pathogen crown gall 4. Caulobacter - aquatic env; use stalks to attach to surface - Divide by budding
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Figures 11.2b, 11.3 The Alphaproteobacteria Have prosthecae Caulobacter : Stalked bacteria found in lakes Hyphomicrobium : Budding bacteria found in lakes
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5. Brucella SHAPE: Coccobacilli Obligate parasites of mammals Usually transmitted to humans by contact with animals Can evade immune system because they survive phagocytosis Cause brucellosis (undulant fever)
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6. Nitrobacter and Nitrosomonas Gram negative rods Important nitrifying bacteria Chemoautotrophs Oxidize ammonium to nitrite ( NO 2 -) and nitrate (NO 3 -)
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7. Wolbachia Most common infectious bacterial genus in the world Live inside insects and invertebrates Some can cause disease Others can turn male insects into females
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THE BETA PROTEOBACTERIA 1. Thiobacillus Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, important in the sulfur cycle 2. Burkholderia: - SHAPE: Gram negative motile rods previously grouped with Pseudomonas. -
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This note was uploaded on 01/12/2011 for the course BIOL 246 taught by Professor Kocache during the Fall '10 term at George Mason.

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Bacteria - BACTERIA C hapte 11 r BACTERIA r rge d ria...

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