Control%20of%20Microbial%20Growth

Control%20of%20Microbial%20Growth - Chapter7 HISTORY...

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Control of Microbial Growth Sterilization and Disinfection Chapter 7
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HISTORY Lister  - father of antiseptic surgery Late 1800’s Pasteur’s theory - “diseases of wine” Used carbolic acid (phenol)  Now considered the standard disinfectant by which  all others are measured by  Phenol coefficient Decreased incidence of post-surgical infections Semmelweiss  - concept of microbial control Late 1800s, aseptic surgery Wash hands between patients
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Three ways to control  microbial growth 1. Disinfectants Antiseptics  2. CHEMOTHERAPEUTIC DRUGS Antibiotics Synthetic drugs 3. Non-specific mechanisms Specific mechanisms Prevention  
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TERMINOLOGY: Destruction of  microbes  1. DISINFECTION  - process in which the vegetative  harmful microbial forms are destroyed Does not necessarily include endospores or  viruses A substance that is disinfected is usually not  STERILE Reduction or inhibition of growth but not total  destruction of all living forms Disinfectants are usually chemicals used on  inanimate objects 1. ANTISEPTIC  – “against infection” Chemical disinfection of living tissues Antiseptics are disinfectants that do not destroy the  living tissues
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TERMINOLOGY: Destruction of   microbes  1. STERILIZATION  - process in which  all  forms of  microbial life are destroyed including prions Includes bacterial endospores and viruses No degrees of sterility Commercial sterilization targets destruction of  Clostridium botulinum  endospores  2. GERMICIDE  - chemical agent that kills microbes but not  necessarily the endospores “CIDE” = KILL   kills GERMS (pathogens) Bactericide - kills bacteria (bacteriocidal) Sporicide - kills spores Virucide - inactivates viruses Fungicide - kills fungi 
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TERMINOLOGY: Suppression of  Microbes 5 .    DEGERMING  - removal of transient microbes from  skin  Occurs via a mechanical cleansing or use of an  ANTISEPTIC Prior to injections, surgery 6.   SANITIZATION  - reduction of pathogens on food  service items Occurs by mechanical cleansing or chemicals Chemicals must be safe and palatable
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Microbes   1. BACTERIOSTATIC  - process of inhibiting the  growth of bacteria Inhibits growth BUT does not necessarily kills the  bacteria Refrigeration, certain chemicals, certain  antibiotics 1. BACTERIOCIDAL  – agents that kill  microorganisms. Occurs via chemical or physical methods
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This note was uploaded on 01/12/2011 for the course BIOL 246 taught by Professor Kocache during the Fall '10 term at George Mason.

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Control%20of%20Microbial%20Growth - Chapter7 HISTORY...

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