Microbial%20GeneticsF09

Microbial%20GeneticsF09 - MICROBIAL GENETICS Chapter 8...

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Unformatted text preview: MICROBIAL GENETICS Chapter 8 STRUCTURE & FUNCTION GENETICS = Study of hereditary Includes the study of the genes Gene replication Gene products (proteins, rRNA, tRNA) Traits derived from expressed genes GENOME = sum of the cells genetic material It consists of all of the chromosome(s) of a cell and plasmids Genomics: is the sequencing and molecular characterization of genomes GENOTYPE = genetic makeup of cell/organism PHENOTYPE = actual traits due to the expression of the genotype (the expression of the genes) CHROMOSOMES Physical structure that carries the hereditary information Genes are made from DNA with A, T, C, G. Double-stranded, helical DNA Acts as a template to make RNA Prokaryotes : one circular chromosome May also contain a plasmid Eukaryotes : more than one, linear chromosome GENES E. coli - 1 chromosome Approximately 4,000 genes DNA = 1 mm long (or 1000 m) Cell = 1 m long Human cell - 23 pairs of chromosomes Approximately 25,000 genes Each chromosome = 50 mm long Chromatin: DNA + proteins DNA STRUCTURE DNA is made up of nucleotides Nitrogenous base + pentose + phosphate Sugar-phosphate backbone Hydrogen bonds from between A : T and C : G Two strands are complementary TRANSCRIPTION : DNA ----> mRNA RNA = A : U and C : G TRANSLATION : mRNA ----> protein Figure 8.2 The Flow of Genetic Information Figure 8.3b DNA Polymer of nucleotides: Adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine Double helix associated with proteins "Backbone" is deoxyribose- phosphate Strands are held together by hydrogen bonds between AT and CG Strands are antiparallel Figure 8.3a Semiconservative Replication Figure 8.4 DNA Synthesis DNA REPLICATION: Overview Set of enzymes working in a specific sequence Process is very accurate Each parental strand acts as a template for the new daughter strand 2 daughter strands produced SEMI-CONSERVATIVE All DNA is synthesized in a directed manner ALWAYS from the 5 towards the 3 end Begins at the ORGIN of REPLICATION Bi-directional - all the way around ----> 2 circular DNA molecules DNA REPLICATION: Overview Several enzymes work together in a sequential manner DNA polymerase is the main enzyme used for the elongation of the new strands at the replication fork DNA polymerase moves in 3 to 5 has a proofreading capability Leading strand is replicated in a continuous manner Lagging strand is replicated non continuously creating small Okazaki fragments that are joined by DNA ligase Figure 8.5 DNA Synthesis Figure 8.6 Replication of Bacterial DNA Figure 8.6b THE DOGMA: DNA...
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Microbial%20GeneticsF09 - MICROBIAL GENETICS Chapter 8...

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