Lecture%204%265%20chapter7%20Natl%20Nutr%20Agenda%20SB -...

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Unformatted text preview: Community Nutrition GCH 421 National Nutrition Agenda for the National Public’s Health Public’s Chapter 7 Today Review chapter 7: “National nutrition Review agenda for the public’s health” agenda Present detailed plan of action for project Present detailed #1 #1 Present outline for field activity #1 National nutrition policy How do we know that there are problems How concerning malnutrition in the United States? concerning There is no national federal body or agency to There enforce a National Nutrition Policy. What we have is a set of nationwide guidelines What that specify how the nutritional needs of the American people will be met and how issues of hunger, malnutrition, food safety, food labeling, food fortification, and nutrition research will be addressed. addressed. Senator George McGovern. Chairman of the Senator Senate Select Committee on nutrition and human needs called for a policy 30 years ago. National nutrition monitoring Nutrition monitoring examines nutritional status, Nutrition knowledge, and behaviors of Americans as well as the nutrient composition of our foods and our food supply. nutrient The ways in which we collect this information can include The research on the following: research Nutritional assessment – Measurement of indicators of Nutritional nutritional status nutritional Nutrition monitoring – Looking for changes in status at Nutrition intermittent times intermittent Nutrition surveillance – Continuous assessment of Nutrition nutritional status nutritional Nutrition screening – Identification of specific Nutrition individuals for intervention individuals National Nutrition Monitoring First nutrition monitoring in US was done in 1909 from First USDA (USDA’s Food Supply Series). USDA 1930: First USDA Household Food Consumption Survey 1930: (Nationwide Food Consumption Survey, 1965) (Nationwide First survey noted chronic undernutrition and hunger First across 10 states. across National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys National (NHANES) I and II were later added in 1970’s. HHANES -1980’s NHANES III – 1988-1994 In 1990’s congress established the National Nutrition In Monitoring and Related Research Program (NNMRRP). Monitoring National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research Program Provides scientific foundation for maintenance Provides and improvement of nutritional status of US and Collect, analyze, and disseminate data on Collect, nutritional and dietary status of US population and of food supply of Identify high-risk groups Identify Develop national baseline data to improve Develop standards, methods, etc.. standards, Provide data for evaluating the implications of Provide changes in agricultural policy related to food production, processing, and distribution production, Conceptual model of relationships of food to Conceptual health as related to the NNMRRP health National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research Program Can be grouped into 5 areas: let’s work backwards Nutritional status and nutrition-related health Nutritional measurements measurements Food and nutrient consumption Knowledge, attitudes, and behavior Knowledge, assessments assessments Food composition and nutrient databases Food supply determinations Nutritional status and Nutrition-related health measurements NHANES I. NHANES 1971-1974 Physical examination, lab data, clinical tests (dietary Physical intake, body composition, hematologic tests, urine tests, x-rays of hand and wrist, dental examinations) Non institutionalized persons 1-74 years NHANES II. 1976-1980 Non institutionalized persons 6 mos – 74 years Collected same data as NHANES I Hispanic health and nutrition examination survey Hispanic (HHANES) (HHANES) 1982-1984 Physical examinations, diagnostic tests, Physical anthropometric measurements, lab data, clinical tests, personal interviews Hispanics ages 6 mos – 74 years (Included Hispanics Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cubans) Mexican Cubans …. Missing something? NHANES III. 1988-1994 2, 3-year phases Similar data as NHHANES I and II Infants 2-11 mos are given a physician’s exam, body Infants measurements, tympanic impedance, dietary interview (with parent) (with Additional tests among those 1-19 years: dental exam, Additional vision tests, cognitive test, allergy, and spirometry (lung vision capacity). Over 20 years were also tested on: glucose tolerance, Over bone density, fitness test, and electrocardiogram. bone These data were used to predict height among whites, These blacks, and Hispanics over the age of 60 years. NHANES IV, began in 1998. – Now called National Food NHANES and Nutrition Survey (merged with Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII). Food These data are collected annually. The survey interviews and examines about 5000 people The in a year. in Uses Mobile Examination Centers (MEC) to collect Uses data. data. Over-sampling in adolescents, those over 60, pregnant Over-sampling women, low income individuals, African Americans, and Mexican Americans. and Food and on food consumption data and evaluate Nutrient Composition Used to collect data Used nutritional content of American diet. nutritional Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) Continuing 1985 and 1986, targeted at low income individuals (did not 1985 include men) include 1989-1991, 1994-1996, and 1998 (included men) Intake were measured by 24-hour dietary recall. Total diet survey Done by the FDA Assesses nutritional components and elemental contaminants Assesses of US Food Supply of Estimates mineral intake of 11 minerals Analyzes foods from stores Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors Gathers information on weight loss Gathers behaviors and knowledge of chronic illnesses (with nutritional implications) illnesses Food Composition and Nutrition Analysis National nutrient data bank Nutrient database for standard references Survey nutrient database http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12-35-00-00 http://www.ars.usda.gov/main/ Uses of National Monitoring Data Primary purpose is to obtain the information Primary needed to ensure a population’s adequate nutrition. nutrition. The data are used for health planning, program The management and evaluation, and timely warning and intervention efforts to prevent acute food shortages. shortages. NHANES data have been used to: Get lead removed from gasoline. Update pediatric growth charts. Establish baseline estimates for blood Establish cholesterol levels in the US. cholesterol Nutrient Intake Standards Knowing how much food a person consumes is Knowing not enough, it is important to have standards with which to make comparisons. which Dietary recommendations have been established Dietary by National Academy of Science. These include: by DRIs Dietary Reference Intakes are nutrient goals Dietary nutrient to be achieved over time. They can be used to set standards for food assistance programs and schools. and DRI/RDA DRI Other category is Acceptable Macronutrient Other Distribution Range (AMDR). This is a range of Distribution intakes for a particular energy source that is associated with a reduced risk of chronic disease while providing adequate intakes of essential nutrients. nutrients. CHO = 45-65% of calories Fat = 20-35% of calories Protein = 10-35% of calories Also include at least 60 minutes a day in Also moderately intensive physical activity (such a brisk walking) or 20 – 30 minutes 4 to 7 days a week in a high intensive activity. week Nutrition Survey Results We are well-nourished, we are also overfat, We underexercised, and have some nutrient deficiencies. deficiencies. In 1999 it was estimated that 61% of adults are In overweight or obese. What is it today?? overweight The rate of becoming overweight and obese is The increasing. increasing. Consumption of grain mixtures has increased. Portion sizes are larger. Let’s look at this! Portion Let’s Fruit and vegetable consumption is down. Snack foods and ready to eat cereals has increased. Additional Messages in the MyPyramid Graphic To foster implementation Personalization: The name “MyPyramid” suggests an The individual approach. The person climbing the steps The mentally links each viewer to the image. the Gradual Improvement: The slogan “Steps to a Healthier You” suggests that The improvement should happen in stages, over time. improvement Print materials: Mini Poster Food Group Plans Previous FGP Dietary Guidelines for Americans Must be revised every 5 years starting from Must 1995. 1995. Guidelines apply to the diet as consumed Guidelines over several days, not to a single meal or food. food. There are other dietary guidelines from There organizations such as the National Cancer Institute. Institute. Dietary Guidelines for Americans Aim for Fitness Aim for a healthy weight. Be physically active each day. Build a healthy base Let the Pyramid guide your food choices Choose a variety of grains daily, especially whole grains Choose a variety of fruits and vegetables daily. Keep food safe to eat. Choose sensibly Choose a diet that is low in saturated fat and cholesterol and Choose moderate in total fat. moderate Choose beverages and foods to moderate your intake of sugars. Choose and prepare foods with less salt. If you drink alcoholic beverages, do so in moderation. Dietary Guidelines http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/ http://www.healthierus.gov What are the Guidelines for adults? Adults should do a minimum of 2 hours and 30 Adults minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic activity a minutes week by doing activities like brisk walking, ballroom dancing, or general gardening. Adults can choose 1 hour and 15 minutes (75 75 minutes) a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic minutes) physical activity by doing exercise like jogging, aerobic dancing, and jumping rope. Adults also may choose combinations of Adults moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic activity. moderate- http://www.mypyramid.gov/kids/index.html The sixth edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans The Dietary places stronger emphasis on reducing calorie consumption and increasing physical activity. consumption This joint project of the Departments of Health and Human This Services and Agriculture is the latest of the five-year reviews required by federal law. required It is the basis of federal food programs and nutrition federal education programs and supported the nutrition and physical fitness pillars of President Bush's Healthier US Healthier Initiative. Initiative. The 7th edition will be coming out. President Obama? Eating a healthy balance of nutritious foods Eating continues as a central point in the Dietary Guidelines, but balancing nutrients is not enough Guidelines for health. for Total calories also count, especially as more Americans are gaining weight. Because almost two-thirds of Americans are overweight or obese, and more than half get too little physical activity, the 2005 Dietary Guidelines place a stronger Dietary emphasis on calorie control and physical activity. The Dietary Guidelines, based on the latest The Dietary based scientific information including medical knowledge, provides authoritative advice for people two years and older about how proper dietary habits can promote health and reduce risk for major chronic diseases. The 2005 Dietary Guidelines were prepared The Dietary in three stages. In the first, a 13-member three In Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee prepared a report based on the best available science. science. In the second stage, government scientists In second government and officials developed the Dietary Guidelines after reviewing the advisory Guidelines committee's report and agency and public comments. In the third stage, experts worked to In third experts translate the Dietary Guidelines into Dietary meaningful messages for the public and educators. educators. The report identifies 41 key recommendations, of which 23 The are for the general public and 18 for special populations. They are grouped into nine general topics: Adequate Nutrients Within Calorie Needs Adequate Weight Management Weight Physical Activity Physical Food Groups to Encourage Food Fats Fats Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Sodium and Potassium Sodium Alcoholic Beverages Alcoholic Food Safety Food Think of 2 sub-recommendations that can go along with each general topic MyPyramid Recommendations Compared to Consumption Bars show percent change needed in consumption to meet recommendations 200 Females 31-50 100 Males 31-50 Percent change Increases Current Consumpti on 0 Fruits Vegetables Grains Meat & Beans Milk Decreases ­100 Fat, Oil & Added Sugars Allowances Compared to Consumption Bars show percent change needed in consumption to meet recommendations 100 Percent Change 50 Females 31-50 Males 31-50 Increases Current Consumpti on Decreases 0 -50 -100 Solid fats Oils Added sugars Vegetable Recommendations Compared to Consumption Consumed* 9% 6% 7% 48% 38% 22% Recommended* 17% 45% 11% 30% 17% 17% Dark Green Vegetables Legumes Starchy Vegetables Orange Vegetables Other Vegetables *Females 31-50 Grain Recommendations Compared to Consumption Consumed* 13% Recommended* 50% 50% 87% Whole Grains Refined Grains *Females 31-50 Work in groups of three and respond to questions Work as marked (see below) on p. 229 of your text. as Be ready to present your conclusions/suggestions Be to the class today. to Questions to answer p 230 Step 1 – 1 & 2 Step 2 – 2 Step 3 – 1 & 2 Step 4 – 1 & 2 Step ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/12/2011 for the course GCH 421 taught by Professor Berkow,s during the Spring '08 term at George Mason.

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