Unformatted text preview: Community Nutrition
GCH 421 Food Insecurity and the Food Food Assistance Programs Assistance Chapter 10 Today
Review schedule for rest of semester and Review plans for health fair plans Discuss “Food insecurity and food Discuss assistance programs”, Chapter 10 assistance Food Security
Access by all people at all times to Access sufficient food for an active and healthy life. Food security at the minimum includes the Food ready availability of nutritionally adequate and safe foods and an assured ability to acquire them in socially acceptable ways (without resorting to emergency food sources, scavenging, stealing, or other coping strategies to meet basic food needs.) coping Food Security includes 5 components Quantity – Is there access to sufficient quantity of Quantity food? food? Quality – Is food nutritionally adequate? Suitability – Is food culturally acceptable and the Suitability capacity for storage and preparation appropriate? capacity Psychological – Does the type and quantity of Psychological food relieve anxiety, lack of choice, and feelings of deprivation? of Social – Are the methods of acquiring food Social socially acceptable? socially Food Insecurity Limited or uncertain ability to acquire or consume an Limited adequate quality or sufficient quantity of food in socially acceptable ways (such as knowing where the next meal is coming from). next Counting the hungry in the U.S. “The U.S. is the world’s biggest food The exporter and one of the wealthiest nations in the world. Still, it does not meet the food needs of its poor.” needs Annual Poverty Guidelines
Household Size 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Poverty Guideline (100% poverty) $10,830 $14570 $18310 $22050 $25790 $29530 $33270 $37010 Food Security categories from USDA Food secure: Households with no or minimal evidence of Food food insecurity food Food insecure without hunger: Households experiencing Food without Households uncertain access to sufficient food, concerned about inadequate resources to buy enough food, and who couldn’t afford to eat balanced meals. couldn’t Food insecure with hunger: Households in which the Food with adults have decreased quantity as well as the quality of food they consume (because of lack of money) to the point where they show clear evidence of a repeated pattern of hunger. This category includes households who have hunger This indicated that due to constrained resources their children were not eating enough and that they had, at times, been forced to cut the size of their children’s meals in order to make ends meet. make Who are the hungry in the U.S.?
The poor – (those below the poverty line) The experienced food and insecurity 3x the national average average The working poor – Federal minimum wage is The $7.25/hour 2009. 39% of emergency food recipient households have at least one adult working. working. The young – 13 million children, or one in six were The hungry or at risk of hunger in 2007. hungry Who are the hungry in the U.S.?
Low-income women; single women households Ethnic minorities Ethnic The elderly – Those with no savings and little SS. The In 2007, 9.4% age 65 and over were poor In Inner city and rural dwellers- transportation Certain southern and western states – AK, OK The farmers The homeless – 2 million people in 1999?? The 335,000 per night 2005 335,000 Demographics of sheltered homeless 2007 Hourly wage, at 40 hrs/week, needed to afford US median fair market rent for a twobedroom unit Food insecurity is a chronic cause of hunger in the U.S. Emergency food assistance facilities are relied on by Emergency families and individuals both in emergencies and as a steady source of food over long periods of time. steady Low paying jobs Poverty level is too low Not enough private charities Linked to poverty Alcoholism and substance abuse Mental illness, lonliness, depression Too proud to receive aid Causes of hunger in the U.S. Causes of hunger in the U.S.
Delays in receiving aid Poor management of finances Health problems Lack of nutritious foods with assistance programs Lack of access to assistance programs (language, Lack paperwork, etc,,) paperwork, Insufficient transportation Cuts in college financial aid Lack of education and employment skills Lack of affordable housing Historical background with food assistance programs Food stamp program was initiated in the 30’s Food during the great depression. Now the SNAP – during Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program The National School Lunch program was initiated The in 1946 after “70% of boys who had poor nutrition 10-12 years ago were rejected by the draft”. 10-12 WIC was initiated in 70’s. In the 1960’s and early 70’s, there was still In widespread hunger, yet with the programs and economic development in the US, poverty reached an all time low of 11.1%. an National School Lunch Program http://www.healthyschoollunches.org/wynterg 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act See Table 10-4 p 334 Reform creates stricter work requirements Reform each year. For example, by 2002 a state had to have 50% of its welfare caseload participating in 30 hours of work activities each week. each 5y later, 32% work full-time, 22% returned 5y to Welfare to Welfare reform 5 yrs later Federal Domestic Nutrition Assistance Programs today
USDA and FNS are trying to increase food USDA security and reduce hunger by providing children and low-income people with access to food, a healthy diet, and nutrition education. education. Look at Table 10-5 p 338 to see U.S. Look Federal food assistance and nutrition education programs. education Federal Domestic Nutrition Assistance Programs today The FNS deliver its programs in partnership with The each state. each 92% of all federal expenditures for food assistance 92% come from the: come Food Stamp Program, (SNAP) The National School Lunch Program, Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), Women, Adult Care Food Program and School Breakfast Program. SNAP Characteristics: Over half are children 49% of participants are children 9% are elderly Average household size is 2.3 persons Average monthly income is $673/household 70% are women 43% are white, 33 are African American, 43% 19.5% are Hispanic 19.5% 90% are below the poverty line It is an entitlement program – anyone who It entitlement meets eligibility standards is entitled to receive benefits benefits SNAP
is the amount too low? do all those who are eligible participate? do Why/ why not? Why/ . WIC Program WIC was authorized in 1974. WIC provides supplemental foods to infants, WIC children up to age 5, and pregnant, breastfeeding, and non-breastfeeding postpartum women who qualify financially and are at nutritional risk. qualify Financial eligibility is between 100% and 185% of Financial the poverty line or below. the Nutritional risk can be anemia, underweight, Nutritional maternal age, history of high risk pregnancy, diet based risk, or conditions that make applicant predisposed to medically based or diet based risks (alcoholism), homelessness, migrancy. (alcoholism), What WIC provides. Food packages or vouchers for supplemental food to Food provide specific nutrients (protein, calcium, iron, vitamin A, and vitamin C). A, Nutrition education Referrals to health care services Nutrition assessment The average monthly WIC food cost per person in 2007 The was $39.15. (Not an entitlement program). was In 2009 the WIC packages changed to better align with the In Dietary Guidelines and infant feeding guidelines of the American Academy of Pediatrics American National School Lunch and Breakfast Program Provides financial assistance to schools so that Provides every child can get a nutritious lunch or breakfast or both. or Schools must meet nutritional criteria and provide Schools free or reduced cost meals. free Eligibility is incomes between 130 and 185% of Eligibility the poverty line. the In 2007, more than 30.5 million children In participated in NSLP. participated Other services: Summer Food Service Program for Other Children, Special Milk Program, After School Snack program, Child and Adult Care Food Program Program Senior Nutrition Programs Elderly Nutrition Program – intended to improve Elderly older people’s nutritional status. older Goals are: Low cost nutritious meals Opportunities for social interaction Nutrition education and shopping assistance Counseling and referral to other social services Transportation services Includes congregate meals program Home delivered meals program (Meals on Home Wheels) Wheels) Filling in the gaps to strengthen the food resource safety net The rising tide of food assistance need Second Harvest Food Banks Let’s look at figure 10-15 on page 353. Community Food Security: Enhancing local food access The development and enhancement of sustainable, The community based strategies to ensure that all persons in a community have access to culturally acceptable, nutritionally adequate food through local nonnutritionally emergency sources at all times. Goals are to: Build and enhance local infrastructures Increase economic and job security Strengthen federal food and nutrition assistance safety Strengthen net net Bolster supplemental food from other organizations Improve community food production Boosting education and nutrition awareness Improve research, monitoring, and evaluation efforts Examples of activities of community food security Farmers’ Markets Community supported agricultural programs Farm-to-school initiatives Food stamp outreach programs Community gardens Food recovery and gleaning programs Food buying cooperatives Directory of supply and demand for community Directory food surplus food See pg 358 – Hunger in an At-risk Population
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