Synaptic Processes Homework Part II 2009

Synaptic Processes Homework Part II 2009 - norepinephrine...

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Synaptic Processes Homework Part II Step 1 : Run through the Powerpoint presentation titled “Synapse Homework Part II”. Step 2 : Answer the following questions: 1. What is the difference between a neurotransmitter and a neuromodulator? What are the criteria that one applies to determine whether or not to call a substance a neurotransmitter? 2. What accounts for the extracellular concentration of adenosine? 3. How many types of adenosine receptor are there and what are their names? How does each work in cellular physiological pathways? 4. How much more sensitive is the A 2A receptor to caffeine than the A 1 receptor? 5. Why is adenosine’s physiological action considered to be inhibitory? 6. What is the primary source of adenosine extracellularly under physiological conditions? 7. List the various mechanisms by which [adenosine] inside is regulated. 8. Caffeine increases the release of epinephrine (adrenaline) and
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Unformatted text preview: norepinephrine (noradrenaline) from neurons, which in turn results in increased stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Propose a plausible mechanism that would explain how caffeine could increase the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine. 9. Antagonists of A 2A receptors can reduce the effect of ischemia. Suggest how this is accomplished. 10. How does the effect of caffeine on A 2A receptors mimic the action of cocaine? 11. On a separate sheet of paper and in less than 250 words (figures, tables and references excluded in the word count) provide one or two new (post 2006) results about the action of adenosine on brain function and explain why the results are important in the light of your current knowledge of adenosine. Provide full references to the original papers. Exceeding the 250 word limit will result in a score of zero on this question....
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