ANT 154B Course notes- Lecture _2

ANT 154B Course notes- Lecture _2 - ANT 154BN Course notes...

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Unformatted text preview: ANT 154BN Course notes Lecture #2: Why plants matter 6 January 2011 Key terms and concepts are indicated in blue Intro Most extant non-human primates are found in the tropics, many in tropical forests If we want to understand primates, must understand their environments, and therefore, must understand plants Outline 1. Tropical forest ecology 101 2. Plant phenology 3. Case study: peat swamp forests 1. Tropical forest ecology 101 Introduction Some basic facts about tropical rain forests 1. major vegetation types are importantly determined by rainfall and temperature, soil type, geology. and elevation 2. tropical forests are megadiverse 3. soils of tropical forests are very poor 4. forests are disappearing 5. Plant growth forms: Trees Epiphytes Hemi-epiphytes (e.g., figs, see below) Climbers Terrestrial herbs ANT 154B Lecture #2 course notes page 2 of 5 2. Plant phenology Phenology: the study of cyclic or seasonal natural processes (often tied to climate) our focus: patterns of plant phenology, and generally, fruit productivity Key points: 1. food for primates is scarce in the rainforest 2. plant phenology largely determines food availability Comparison among locations and forest types Very basic and oversimplified comparison among continents: Madagascar (highly seasonal, cyclones, periods of low food availability) File South America (relatively predictable seasonality) Africa andPath://spsind002s/cup_prod1/PRODENV/000000~1/00E27E~2/S00000~2/ 00D226~1/000000~3/000010295.3D Proof by: QC by: Author: Marshall Comp. by: vasenthan Date:18/3/06 Time:00:28:44 Stage:First Proof SE Asia (supra-annual patterns of fruiting, highly unpredictable) Locations (e.g., Borneo vs. Sumatra) and forest types (e.g., peat vs. montane vs. lowlands, below from Marshall & Leighton 2006) that are very close together can differ dramatically Food availability and population density 325 Figure 12.3. Phenological characterizations of gibbon food availability in lowland (A), montane (B), peat swamp (C) forest habitats. Line indicates the number of taxa with fruit in each month. Bars indicate mast (black), HFP (gray), LFP (white), and crunch (hatched). ANT 154B Lecture #2 course notes page 3 of 5 Letter Mast fruiting in southeast Asia Landscape level Bornean plant Masts: periods when a substantial portion of the plants fruit in synchrony, with long periods of reproductive inactivity separating them (a) very pronounced and widespread taxonomically in SE Asia Leads to massive variation in food supply for vertebrates Variation among forest types (all types on left, masting ones on right): Landscape level Bornean plant reproduction 963 (b) (a) (h) (b) (i) (c) (c) (j) behaviour over onths in a Bornean rainforest for ent forest types. (a) montane (mean nth)1 = 283, min = 266, max = 301); per granite (mean N month)1 = 640, 504, max = 678); (c) lower granite )1 N month)1 = 673, min = 572, max ); (d) lower sandstone (mean nth)1 = 1023, min = 911, max = ; (e) alluvial bench (mean N month)1 , min = 578, max = 671); (f) freshwaswamp (mean N month)1 = 870, 676, max = 922); and (g) peat swamp N month)1 = 688, min = 610, = 701). Observed values are shown in )1 grey line. The average level of fruiting ted across all months is indicated by olid black line while 95% confidence are shown by the dashed black lines. hin grey line illustrates a single replicate ndom fruiting behaviour. Frequency ution of reproductive levels by month : (h) montane; (i) upper granite; (j) granite; (k) lower sandstone; (l) alluvial ; (m) freshwater swamp; and (n) peat p. Barcharts illustrate observed levels production. Black curves assume a season, grey curves assume a mixed l with two seasons. e 4 Fruiting (k) behaviour over (d) 68 months in a Bornean rainforest for different forest types. (a) montane (mean N month = 283, min = 266, max = 301); (l) (b) upper granite (mean(e)N month)1 = 640, min = 504, max = 678); (c) lower granite (mean N month)1 = 673, min = 572, max = 696); (d) lower (f)sandstone (mean (e) (m) N month = 1023, min = 911, max = 1049); (e) alluvial bench (mean N month)1 = 646, min = 578, max = 671); (f) freshwa(n) ter swamp (mean (g)N month)1 = 870, min = 676, max = 922); and (g) peat swamp (mean N month)1 = 688, min = 610, (f) max = 701). Observed values are shown in thick grey line. The average level of fruiting expected across all months is indicated by the solid black line while 95% confidence te climbers limits are shown by ctive pro(Fig. S3), variability in reprodu the dashed black lines. low variability in reproductive productivity as the mean and vity is quite high. In the lowland sandstone, climbers maximum productivity values for the lowland sandstone are The thin grey line illustrates quite low. The freshwa the most consistently reproductive, ranking substan- a single replicate ter swamp climber community was higher than all other forest types across the observathe Frequency most consistently reproductive of the seven of random fruiting behaviour. second examined. forest types period. This high relative rank is largely due to the very (g) distribution of reproductive levels by month follow: (h) montane; (i) upper granite; (j) Ó 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS lower granite; (k) lower sandstone; (l) alluvial bench; (m) freshwater swamp; and (n) peat swamp. Barcharts illustrate observed levels of reproduction. Black curves assume a (d) Figure 4 Fruiting ANT 154B Lecture #2 course notes pattern driven by large trees: page 4 of 5 Comp. by: vasenthan Date:18/3/06 Time:00:28:40 Stage:First Proof File Path://spsind002s/cup_prod1/PRODENV/000000~1/00E27E~2/S00000~2/ 00D226~1/000000~3/000010295.3D Proof by: QC by: Author: Marshall patterns are generated by the sum of behaviors of many individuals and taxa: Food availability and population density 317 Figure 12.2. Phenology of sample taxon in each of the four classes used to categorize gibbon foods in Bornean rainforests between January 1986 and September 1991 at Gunung Palung. The dotted line indicates Total Food Availability (TFA; patches/ha), and the black line indicates the number of patches/ha of a sample masting taxon (A: Neoscortechinia kingii), HFP taxon (B: Rourea minor), LFP taxon (C: Porterandia sessiliflora), and crunch taxon (D: Gnetum sp. 1). See text for additional details. ANT 154B Lecture #2 course notes page 5 of 5 Masts are tied to ENSO cycles, which are intensifying, probably due to global climate change 3. Case study: peat swamp forests Characteristics of peat swamp forests • not flooded, few nutrient inputs • very poor quality soil • poorly drained soils, matter does not fully decompose and builds up in layers • peat layers can be very thick, major carbon sinks • restricted range . produce many interesting adaptations (e.g., stilt roots, Nepenthes) Have important effects on animals, especially folivores: Take home messages 1. Tropical forests are highly diverse, have poor soils, exhibit substantial variation in productivity in space and time, and are disappearing. 2. Peat swamp forests are characterized by poor soils quality, low plant productivity, and generally low densities of folivores. Question to ponder* Using peat swamp as an example, discuss the connection between soil quality, plant strategies, and primate populations. (Note: We are not looking for a simple regurgitation of the flow-chart, but need to explain the connections (logic, assumptions) that underlie the schematic) ...
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