ANT 154BN-01 Introduction

ANT 154BN-01 Introduction - Primate Evolutionary Ecology...

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Unformatted text preview: Primate Evolutionary Ecology Anthropology 154B(N) Lecture 1, 4 Jan 2011 How does food shape primate morphology? 3 Why do most primates live in groups? Why do primates with large bodies tend to live in large groups? Group size Body size Why do some primates have large brains, and others small brains? Relative gut size Relative brain size Why do some areas have so many species, and others so few? Fig. 1. Patterns of species distribution of mammals throughout the world, showing species richness (A), restricted-range species (B), and threatened species (C). All scales are in terms of number of species per 10,000-km2 grid cell. (See Materials and Methods for further details.) are found in a scattering of locations oc cupying roughly a quarter of the area of the Western Hemisphere species richness hotspot, but also include the Atlantic forests in Brazil, about a third of the equatorial Af rica species richness hotspot, plus much of Madagascar and part of western Af rica, and the western Ghats in India, parts of Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi and Papua New Guinea, and the Himalayan foothills southward to Singapore (Fig. 2C). The tot al number of mammal species found in the three t ypes of 2.5% hotspots is surprisingly high (n 2,833, or 59% of all species, Table 1), but there is a lot of variation. The number of species represented in the species-richness hotspots Th richness r r n rt p e ho s Mammal speciesere2f.o5r% meosrtreicetetde-nasinvgeelyadidsttrhibeaeenecdovsereicnig smortepsoptsecairees the e x ut d, because they lack the high species overlap of the richness hotspots. The broad patterns in mammalian distributions are remarkably similar to those in birds (4), the main dif ference being the higher species richness in the mammal hotspots despite the higher global species richness of birds ( 9,000 species)Ehrlich 2006 Ceballos & . There are, however, some clear dif ferences in det ail. There are hotspots of bird species richness in Asia, but none for mammals. But there are mammalian hotspots for restricted-range and threatened What determines the structure of primate communities? 490 ￿. ɢ. ￿ʟ￿￿ɢʟ￿ ￿ɴ￿ ￿. ￿. ʀ￿￿￿ Tai Kibale RaleighvallenVoltsberg Manu Ketambe Morondava Ranomafana Kuala Lompat Figure 1. Map showing the location of the primate communities compared in this study. ‘‘ecological space’’ occupied by communities on different continents similar or different? Are the species in communities from some biogeographical areas more similar to one another than those of other areas? Are some ecological characteristics more consistent among communities than others? Are ecological similarities of primate communities within continental areas greater or smaller than those between primates from different continents? What is the role of phylogeny in determining the ecological characteristics of primate communities? Fleagle & Reed 1996 M a t erial a n d m e t h o ds Can an understanding of evolutionary ecology contribute to primate conservation? Introduction 1. Nuts and bolts of ANT 154B 2. Course overview 3. Why study primates? 4. How do we study primates? Introduction >1. Nuts and bolts of ANT 154B 2. Course overview 3. Why study primates? 4. How do we study primates? Instructor: Prof. Marshall ajmarshall@ucdavis.edu 216 Young Hall (2nd floor) Office hours: Mondays 1:10-3 pm and by appointment Teaching Assistant: Julie Linden jlinden@ucdavis.edu 2S Young Hall (basement) Office hours: Wednesdays 1–3pm 12 Andy Marshall Syllabus Email Readings • Two required books • All additional readings for lectures and discussion sections will be posted on the course website as required. Cowlishaw & Dunbar Primate Conservation Biology Fleagle, Janson & Reed Primate Communities 70.0 Grading Discussion sections Two lab write-ups Writing assignment Midterm exam Final exam 35.0 0 2004 10% 20% 20% 25% 25% No extra credit! Sections • Required • Mondays 3:10 – 4:00 pm in Olson 117 or Wednesdays 5:10 – 6:00 pm in Olson 216 • You must attend your assigned section. Website Website Lecture slides Anthropology 154B(N) Primate Evolutionary Ecology Lecture 1, 4 Jan 2011 Podcasts Warning Introduction 1. Nuts and bolts of ANT 154B >2. Course overview 3. Why study primates? 4. How do we study primates? What is evolutionary ecology? How does this course fit into the ANT 154 primate series? Overview 1. Introduction 2. Individuals 3. Groups 4. Populations 5. Communities 6. Conservation Midterm Overview 1. Introduction Why and how do we study primates? Why plants matter Overview 2. Individuals Primate diets Feeding ecology Foraging theory Locomotor ecology Brains and cognition Overview 3. Ecology of grouping Competition Infanticide Predation Midterm Overview 4. Populations Life history theory Basic population ecology Distribution, abundance, and rarity Overview 5. Communities Determinants of niches Competition among species Comparisons of primate communities Determinants of diversity Overview 6. Conservation Threats to and status of extant primate populations Tactics and strategies for conserving primate populations Concluding remarks Introduction 1. Nuts and bolts of ANT 154B 2. Course overview >3. Why study primates? 4. How do we study primates? Why Study Primates? 1. General biological and evolutionary interest speciose; variable in ecology, social system, and behavior Why Study Primates? 2. To better understand ourselves and our place in nature -> by analogy: Study of primate adaptations in a variety of environments elucidates how ecology shapes morphology, diet, social system, etc. Why Study Primates? 2. To better understand ourselves and our place in nature -> by homology: shared evolutionary history of humans and primates provides insights into the lives of our extinct ancestors Gorilla Human Chimp Bonobo Primitive spelling bees Why Study Primates? 3. To aid general conservation efforts primates as flagships, keystones and umbrellas Why Study Primates? 3. To aid general conservation efforts some primate species are uniquely vulnerable b/c of their biologies N = 50 N = 100 N = 250 N = 500 Marshall et al. 2009 Why Study Primates? Introduction 1. Nuts and bolts of ANT 154B 2. Course overview 3. Why study primates? >4. How do we study primates? • some general thoughts on science • types of primate studies Introduction 1. Nuts and bolts of ANT 154B 2. Course overview 3. Why study primates? >4. How do we study primates? * some general thoughts on science • types of primate studies Why is science important? • evidence based, impartial • falsifiable data hypothesis theory • permit a priori testing of ideas, not solely post hoc explanations • allow integration of multiple lines and levels of evidence Five simple things to remember 1. Correlation ! causation # of bars # of churches Five simple things to remember 1. Correlation ! causation “Do you think all these film crews brought on global warming or did global warming bring on all these film crews?” Five simple things to remember 1. Correlation ! causation Five simple things to remember 1. Correlation ! causation “I just figured out why we’ve never had girlfriends.” Correlations can be useful Density ( individuals/km2) 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 n = 7 forest types r2 = 0.93 p = 0.0005 Gibbon Density Log ( fig d ensity ( stems/ha)+1) Fig density Marshall & Leighton 2006 Correlations can be useful 2.25 Gibbon Density 2.00 1.75 1.50 1.25 0 0.4 0.8 Fig density n= 11 sites r2 = 0.82 p= 0.0001 1.2 1.6 Correlations can be useful... but also misleading fig density gibbon density gibbon density fig density what cause, what effect? what independent, what dependent variable? Correlations can be useful... but also misleading selection of sample can have strong effects all people men women Correlations can be useful... but also misleading spurious correlations due to lurking variables # of bars both a function of population size # of churches Five simple things to remember 2. Explanations at multiple levels are not mutually exclusive. Five simple things to remember 3. All scientific measurements have associated error (i.e., imprecision); there is often also bias (i.e., inaccuracy). Five simple things to remember 4. The best, most important scientific ideas are controversial when first proposed. “I’m afraid you’ve had a paradigm shift.” Five simple things to remember 5. Ideas are cheap; good data are more important than good theory. Introduction 1. Nuts and bolts of ANT 154B 2. Course overview 3. Why study primates? >4. How do we study primates? • some general thoughts on science * types of primate studies Some different ways of studying primates laboratory vs. field Lab Control Ecological relevance Experimental manipulations Chief limitation high low possible Field low high limited funds access individuals vs. populations Individuals Populations Sampling effort Help understand ecology? Help understand social behav.? Conservation relevance intensive yes yes potentially high extensive yes limited high single species vs. comparative studies Single species Comparative Address phylogeny? Primary data collection Uncover broad patterns? Detailed info on mechanism? no yes no yes yes rarely yes no empirical vs. theoretical Empirical study Theoretical models Assumptions Sources of error/bias Chief limitation Conservation relevance implicit, explicit known, unknown data potentially high explicit known computational ability, data potentially high Take home messages 1. Primate studies contribute to general evolutionary theory, an understanding of our place in nature, and conservation. 2. Science is an evidence based, falsifiable way of knowing. 3. Note the five simple things about science 4. There are many ways to study primates. Which is most applicable and valid depends on your question. Question to ponder One of the hallmarks of good science is the explicit and careful consideration of initial assumptions, sources of error, and potential biases. From among the assigned readings that present a primary study with empirical data (e.g., one of the journal articles assigned for lectures 4-10), select one paper and describe the extent to which the author(s) explicitly discuss their assumptions (and consider the validity of those assumptions), potential sources of error (and their magnitude), and possible biases (and the direction of the bias). ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/12/2011 for the course ANT 154bn taught by Professor Debello during the Winter '10 term at UC Davis.

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