ANT 154BN-02 Why plants matter

ANT 154BN-02 Why plants matter - ANT 154B Lecture#2 Why...

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Unformatted text preview: ANT 154B Lecture #2: Why plants matter 6 Jan 2011 Primate distribution Primate Communities; Fig 1.1a Why plants matter 1. Tropical forest ecology 101 2. Plant phenology 3. Case study: peat swamp forests Why plants matter >1. Tropical forest ecology 101 2. Plant phenology 3. Case study: peat swamp forests engraving from “Flora Brasiliensis” von Martius 1840 frontpiece of A. R. Wallace’s “The Malay Archipelago” Nepenthes spp., Borneo Slender pitcher plant (Nepenthes gracilis) Nepenthes gracilis Narrow-lidded pitcher plant (Nepenthes ampullaria) Crab spider, Misumenops nepenthicola, in pitcher of Raffles pitcher plant Geosesarma perracae Crab, Geosesarma perracae, in pitcher of narrow-lidded pitcher plant Tan & Ng 2008 Bulbophyllum cimicinum 10 cm Some basic facts about tropical rain forests Tropical forests are disappearing at alarming rates Key growth forms of tropical plants Trees Epiphytes Hemi-epiphytes Climbers Terrestrial herbs Trees picture of big trees, different communities www.timlaman.com Epiphytes Epiphytes www.timlaman.com Hemiepiphytes Strangler figs www.timlaman.com Strangler figs Climbers (lianas) Terrestrial herbs Why plants matter 1. Tropical forest ecology 101 >2. Plant phenology 3. Case study: peat swamp forests Tropical forest phenology TFA (patches/ha) 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Jan 86 Apr 86 A Jul 86 Oct 86 Jan 87 Apr 87 Jul 87 Oct 87 Jan 88 Apr 88 Jul 88 Oct 88 Jan 89 Apr 89 Jul 89 Oct 89 Jan 90 Apr 90 Jul 90 Oct 90 Jan 91 Apr 91 Jul 91 Tropical forest phenology 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 # taxa with fruit Marshall (2004) % t otal f eeding o bservations % % eeding Observations Feeding observations F total feeding 100% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 0% 100% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 0% Jan-Mar 86 (38) Apr-Jun 86 (57) Jul-Sep 86 (26) Oct-Dec 86 (35) Jan-Mar 87 (49) Apr-Jun 87 (320) Jul-Sep 87 (71) Oct-Dec 87 (45) Jan-Mar 88 (40) Apr-Jun 88 (37) Jul-Sep 88 (24) Oct-Dec 88 (24) Jan-Mar 89 (18) Apr-Jun 89 (8) Jul-Sep 89 (11) Oct-Dec 89 (25) Jan-Mar 90 (15) Apr-Jun 90 (15) Jul-Sep 90 (13) Oct-Dec 90 (13) Jan-Mar 91 (11) Jan-Mar 88 (45) Apr-Jun 88 (49) Oct-Dec 87 (57) Jul-Sep 87 (25) Apr-Jun 87 (14) Jan-Mar 87 (28) Jul-Sep 86 (19) Apr-Jun 86 (36) Jan-Mar 86 (31) Leaves Figs Fruit pulp+ seeds Flowers Seeds Leaves Figs Fruit pulp Flowers Oct-Dec 86 (35) time Jul-Sep 88 (12) Oct-Dec 88 (21) Jan-Mar 89 (12) Apr-Jun 89 (4) Jul-Sep 89 (26) Oct-Dec 89 (29) Jan-Mar 90 (28) Apr-Jun 9 0(27) Jul-Sep 90 (17) Oct-Dec 90 (13) Jan-Mar 91 (8) time gibbons leaf monkeys 41 Tropical forest phenology Comparison among locations and forest types Mast fruiting in southeast Asia Tropical forest phenology Comparison among locations and forest types Mast fruiting in southeast Asia Sumatra Sumatra Borneo Borneo Marshall et al. (2009); Wich & Marshall (2010) Periods of fruit scarcity are less common on Sumatra Marshall et al. 2009 TFA (patches/ha) 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 TFA (patches/ha) TFA (patches/ha) 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Jan 86 Apr 86 Apr 86 Jul 86 Oct 86 Jan 87 Apr 87 Jul 87 Oct 87 Jan 88 Apr 88 Jul 88 Jan 86 Apr 86 Jul 86 Oct 86 Jan 87 Apr 87 Jul 87 Oct 87 Jan 88 Apr 88 Jul 88 Oct 88 Jan 89 Apr 89 Jul 89 Oct 89 Jan 90 Apr 90 Jan 86 A Marshall & Leighton (2006) Jul 86 Oct 86 Jan 87 Apr 87 Jul 87 Oct 87 Jan 88 Apr 88 Jul 88 Oct 88 Jan 89 Apr 89 Jul 89 Oct 89 Jan 90 Apr 90 Peat swamp Number of food sources available per month Oct 88 Jan 89 Apr 89 Jul 89 Oct 89 Jan 90 Apr 90 Montane forest Lowland habitats Mast months High fruit months Low fruit months Crunch months Jul 90 Oct 90 Jan 91 Apr 91 Jul 91 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Jul 90 Oct 90 Jan 91 Apr 91 Jul 91 4.5 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 Jul 90 Oct 90 Jan 91 Apr 91 Jul 91 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 # taxa with fruit # taxa with fruit # taxa with fruit Tropical forest phenology Comparison among locations and forest types Mast fruiting in southeast Asia Leaf monkey food patches/ ha 10 12 14 16 0 Jan 86 Jul 86 Oct 86 Jan 87 2 4 6 8 mast Jul 87 Oct 87 Jan 88 Apr 88 Jul 88 Oct 88 Jan 89 Apr 89 Time (years) Oct 89 Jan 90 Apr 90 Jul 90 Oct 90 Jan 91 Apr 91 Jul 91 1989 1990 1991 Jul 89 1987 Apr 87 1986 Apr 86 1988 mast Marshall (2004) Landscape level Bornean plant reproduction 963 (a) (b) (h) (i) (b) (i) (c) (c) (j) (j) g behaviour over (d) 68 months in a Bornean rainforest for a Bornean rainforest for types. (a) montane (mean forest types. (a) montane (mean different 83, min = 266, max = 301); )1 N month = 283, min = 266, max = 301); (mean N month)1 = 640, )1 = 678); (c) lower upper granite (mean N month (b) granite = 640, )1 = 673, min = 572, max min = 504, max = 678); (c) lower granite lower sandstone (mean )1 (e) (mean = = 673, min = 572, max 023, min = 911, max N month )1 l bench (mean = 696); N month (d) lower sandstone (mean 8, max = 671); (f) freshwa- )1 N month = 1023, min = 911, max = mean N month)1 = 870, = 922); and (g)1049); (e) alluvial bench (mean N month)1 peat swamp th)1 = 688, min = 610, = 646, in (f) served values are shown min = 578, max = 671); (f) freshwahe average level of fruiting ter swamp (mean N month)1 = 870, all months is indicated by min = 676, max = 922); and (g) peat swamp line while 95% confidence )1 = 688, min = 610, by the dashed(mean black lines. N month e illustrates a single replicate max = 701). Observed values are shown in ting behaviour. Frequency (g) thick grey productive levels by month line. The average level of fruiting tane; (i) upperexpected across all months is indicated by granite; (j) lower sandstone; (l) alluvial the solid water swamp; and (n) peat black line while 95% confidence ts illustrate observed levels shown by the dashed black lines. limits are . Black curves assume a The thin grey line illustrates a single replicate ey curves assume a mixed of random fruiting behaviour. Frequency seasons. Figure 4 Fruiting behaviour over (d) (k) (k) (l) (e) (l) (m) (f) (n) (m) distribution of reproductive levels by month follow: (h) montane; (i) upper granite; (j) (g) Cannon, Curran, Marshall, (n) & Leighton (2007) nonmasting masting Cannon, Curran, Marshall, & Leighton (2007) Food/ha 0 5 10 15 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 10 15 20 25 30 0 5 Food/ha Feb 86 May 86 Aug 86 Nov 86 Feb 87 May 87 May 86 Aug 86 Nov 86 Feb 87 May 87 Feb 86 Food/ha 20 25 30 Feb 86 May 86 Aug 86 Nov 86 Feb 87 May 87 Marshall & Leighton (2006) time time Aug 87 time Aug 87 Nov 87 Feb 88 May 88 Aug 88 Nov 88 Feb 89 May 89 Aug 89 Nov 89 Feb 90 May 90 Aug 90 Nov 90 Feb 91 May 91 Aug 91 May 88 Aug 88 Nov 88 Feb 89 May 89 Aug 89 Nov 89 Feb 90 May 90 Aug 90 Nov 90 Feb 91 May 91 Aug 91 Feb 88 Nov 87 Aug 87 Nov 87 Feb 88 May 88 Aug 88 Nov 88 Feb 89 May 89 Aug 89 Nov 89 Feb 90 May 90 Aug 90 Nov 90 Feb 91 May 91 Aug 91 Masting Low fruit period Rourea major High fruit period Neoscortechinia kingii Porterandia sessiliflora El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) years Curran & Leighton 2000 Non- ENSO ENSO Salafsky 1998 Why plants matter 1. Tropical forest ecology 101 2. Plant phenology >3. Case study: peat swamp forests Riau Province, Sumatra Nepenthes spp. poor soil quality slow, costly plant growth low plant productivity investment in defense little food low quality food generally low quality habitat Peat swamp poor quality habitat for folivores 14 12 frugivores folivores Gibbons Leaf monkeys 10 Denisty (indiv/km2) +/- SE 8 6 4 2 0 Peat Swamp Freshwater Swamp Alluvial Bench Lowland Sandstone Lowland Granite Upland Granite Montane Take home messages 1. Tropical forests are highly diverse, have poor soils, exhibit substantial variation in productivity in space and time, and are disappearing. 2. Peat swamp forests are characterized by poor soils quality, low plant productivity, and generally low densities of folivores. Question to ponder Using peat swamp as an example, discuss the connection between soil quality, plant strategies, and primate populations. ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/12/2011 for the course ANT 154bn taught by Professor Debello during the Winter '10 term at UC Davis.

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