ANT 154BN-03 Primate diets

ANT 154BN-03 Primate diets - ANT 154B Lecture #3: Primate...

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Unformatted text preview: ANT 154B Lecture #3: Primate diets: core concepts 11 January 2011 1 Tuesday, January 11, 2011 Primate diets: core concepts 1. Overview of plant-primate interactions 2. Of guts and teeth 3. Fallback foods 4. The Jarman-Bell principle 2 Tuesday, January 11, 2011 Primate diets: core concepts >1. Overview of plant-primate interactions 2. Of guts and teeth 3. Fallback foods 4. The Jarman-Bell principle 3 Tuesday, January 11, 2011 Plant-primate interactions Leaves: plant food acquisition devices sources of food for primates, plants want to protect from primate herbivores arms race between plant chemical defenses and primate digestive anatomy and physiology 4 Tuesday, January 11, 2011 arms race between plant chemical and physical defenses and primate masticatory and digestive anatomy and physiology Seeds: plant offspring sources of food for primates, plants want to protect from primate predators Plant-primate interactions 5 Tuesday, January 11, 2011 competition among plants to attract dispersers, competition between animal species who utilize the food resource Plant-primate interactions Fruit: vehicle for dispersal of offspring sources of food for primates, plants want primates to disperse their seeds 6 Tuesday, January 11, 2011 7 Tuesday, January 11, 2011 8 Tuesday, January 11, 2011 Primate diets: core concepts 1. Overview of plant-primate interactions >2. Of guts and teeth 3. Fallback foods 4. The Jarman-Bell principle 9 Tuesday, January 11, 2011 10 10 Tuesday, January 11, 2011 Gibbons 5.8% 12.7% 24.6% 52.0% 4.9% Flowers Fruit pulp Figs Leaves Seeds Leaf monkeys 6.4% 64.8% 2.4% 3.2% 23.1% Flowers Fruit pulp Figs Leaves Seeds Eat foods from 76 species Gibbons Primate diets differ Eat foods from 118 species 11 Tuesday, January 11, 2011 Diet is a continuum, no sharp divisions. All species use many food resources. 12 Tuesday, January 11, 2011 Teeth & guts: function 13 Teeth penetrate foods physical defenses fracture, grind, crush food preparation for digestion Guts circumvent foods chemical defenses extract nutrients, calories 13 Tuesday, January 11, 2011 Teeth & guts: design features 14 Teeth (and other chewing apparatus) number and relative size of different types of teeth shape and height of crests enamel thickness jaw robustness and musculature Guts stomach volume and extent of subdivision microorganisms to digest cellulose total surface area Shaped by natural selection 14 Tuesday, January 11, 2011 Teeth 15 15 Tuesday, January 11, 2011 Fruit eaters 16 Requires relatively little specialization, but usually have large, broad, incisors (piercing fruit husk) rigid, bony palates (rubbing fruit against) low, rounded molars (grinding) strong lips (wadging) Seed spets have very thick molar enamel 16 Tuesday, January 11, 2011 Gum eaters 17 Large prominent incisors gouging holes in tree trunks Some prosimians have tooth comb of forward-projected incisors and caninies scraping gum 17 Tuesday, January 11, 2011 Insect eaters 18 Sharp incisors, cusps piercing exoskeleton, shearing prey 18 Tuesday, January 11, 2011 Leaf eaters...
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ANT 154BN-03 Primate diets - ANT 154B Lecture #3: Primate...

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