Marshall _ Wrangham 2007-Fallback foods

Marshall _ Wrangham 2007-Fallback foods - Int J...

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Evolutionary Consequences of Fallback Foods Andrew J. Marshall Richard W. Wrangham Received: 28 October 2005 /Revised: 3 March 2006 /Accepted: 13 October 2006 / Published online: 4 December 2007 # Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2007 Abstract Primatologists use the term fallback foods to denote resources of relatively low preference that are used seasonally when preferred foods are unavailable. We exam- ine the assumption that fallback foods play an important role in shaping morphological adaptations, behavior, and socioecology in primates. We discuss operational definitions of preferred and fallback foods and suggest that the evolutionary importance of fallback foods applies more to adaptations for processing than for harvesting foods. Equally, we propose that preferred resources tend to drive adaptations for harvesting foods. We distinguish 2 classes of fallback foods according to their roles in the diet and their evolutionary effects. Staple fallback foods are available year-round, tend to be eaten throughout the year, and seasonally can constitute up to 100% of the diet. Filler fallback foods never constitute 100% of the diet, and may be completely avoided for weeks at a time. We suggest that the availability of the 2 classes of fallback foods have different effects on the socioecology of primate species. Keywords diet . fallback foods . feeding ecology . resource selectivity . seasonality Introduction Most primate species experience periodic food shortages during which their diets shift substantially. The foods that primates utilize during periods of low food availability Int J Primatol (2007) 28:1219 1235 DOI 10.1007/s10764-007-9218-5 A. J. Marshall ( * ) Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA e-mail: [email protected] R. W. Wrangham Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA Present address: A. J. Marshall Department of Anthropology and Graduate Group in Ecology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
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are frequently called fallback foods (FBFs). Several primatologists have hypothesized that the ecological characteristics (e.g., hardness, patch size, dispersion) and patterns of availability both temporally and spatially of FBFs shape the physiology, socioecology, and behavior of a wide range of primate species. For example, Lambert et al. ( 2004 ) suggested that the unusually thick dental enamel of gray-cheeked mangabeys is an adaptation to the relatively great hardness of their FBFs. Likewise, the specialized digestive physiology of colobines allows them to fall back on low- quality foliage that cannot be readily exploited by monogastric primates (Bauchop 1971 , 1977 ; Chivers and Hladik 1984 ). The ability of colobines to exploit a super- abundant FBF has led to the hypothesis that folivorous primates experience dampened feeding competition compared with frugivorous primates (Isbell 1991 ; Steenbeek and van Schaik 2001 ; Yeager and Kool 2000 ). Others have argued that the quality and
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This note was uploaded on 01/12/2011 for the course ANT 154bn taught by Professor Debello during the Winter '10 term at UC Davis.

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Marshall _ Wrangham 2007-Fallback foods - Int J...

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