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10 Media and Ideology

10 Media and Ideology - Chapter 10 Chapter Media and...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 10 Chapter Media and Ideology Communication Media includes: Communication Television, radio, newspapers, and Internet Internet a How does the media influence the How information we receive in various ways? ways? a Chapter focuses on: a information industry a ideology a The Information Industry The Canada has “freedom of the press” a Years ago people got their Years information from family, workplace, church (face to face) as many did not even have telephones even a Today Canada has more tv stations Today than newspapers (cable and satellite offer up to 500 channels) offer a Control of the Media Control a a a a a a By 2001, over 5.8 Canadian households (49% of By households) had atleast one member regularly using the internet from home internet Who owns the media? Who Special Senate Committee on Mass media (1970) and the Special Royal Commission on Newspapers (1981) were formed to investigate the extent of control over media of a few large corporations (concerned with the demise of the smaller media outlets) media Were a few corporations controlling the information? Do they carry political, cultural and social power? Are certain social groups excluded? (racial minorities and Are the poor?) the a a a a What is the danger of “concentrated What corporate control” of the media? corporate In the U.S. the same company is not In allowed to own a t.v. station and a newspaper in the same market (city, state) newspaper In Canada this is not so. Bell Globemedia In controls the Globe and Mail newspaper and the CTV t.v network. and CanWest Global controls the National Post CanWest newspaper and the Global t.v. network newspaper Canadian Media Canadian a a a How does ownership influence the flow of How information? information? How does it influence “editorial How independence?” Example of the Asper family who controls Example CanWest Global. They wanted one editorial position. The company fired the publisher of the Ottawa Citizen when the paper published a critical article of Jean Chretien as the Aspers were Liberal Party Censorship Censorship a Aboriginal writer Doug Cutdhand (p. Aboriginal 127) wrote a column for CanWest’s Regina and Saskatoon papers in which he likened the Aboriginal realities in Canada to the realities of Palestinians. The Asper family support the Israeli side of the Palestinian/Israeli struggle and so refused to publish this viewpoint. refused Convergence and Advertising Advertising Convergence refers to cross-media Convergence ownership of Internet, newspapers, and tv and a In 2001 in the U.S. America Online In (largest internet company) joined with Time Warner (movie and publishing company) - largest merger in corporate history merger a The company now provides 30 The a Fears about convergence: too much Fears control over information by too few people people a Freedom of information is key to Freedom democracy democracy a Democracy and culture are too Democracy important to be dictated by “the market” market” a Newspapers once relied on political Newspapers a 19th century newspapers 19th Linked to political parties a The Toronto Globe - owned by The George Brown (Reform politician) George a Toronto Mail - John A. MacDonald Toronto (Conservative) used it as a vehicle for his political views for a Merged into The Globe and Mail a There was newspaper partisanship There therefore, no balance in reporting therefore, a Rise in Advertising Rise Increased literacy and higher Increased circulation rates led to rise in advertising- no longer dependent on political parties political a The auto industry is the biggest The source of advertising for tv stations source a Is it surprising then that the pollution Is and safety factors of automakers are not front and centre when it comes a a Events have been downplayed or Events distorted as media outlets controlled by large chains prefer not to run stories than expose or reflect their allies in a negative light allies “Intense” a a a a a The mass media is our prime source of The information information The news is delivered in a very “matter of The fact” way fact” What news gets coverage? Protests which are violent get more Protests attention than those that are peaceful attention The media pay less attention to non The violent corporate or white collar crime than other violent crimes Internet based services tend to Internet emphasize celebrity (death of Princess Diana) Princess a Third World news - coups, Third earthquakes, famines, wars earthquakes, a Children living in poverty - less so a Stories from Brazil may focus on a Stories volcanic eruption rather than heavy foreign debt foreign a “Unambiguous and Unambiguous Balanced” Balanced” a a a a a TV and print media usually present both TV government and opposition sides to a political story political In Environmental stories there are the In industry and activist sides industry A black and white picture is presented Overly simplifying issues attracts the Overly audience and satisfies advertisers audience This results in distortion or ignoring of This facts facts a Complex issues such as the Complex Aboriginal issue presented in the Constitutional debates on the 1990’s difficult to convey as there was not one “aboriginal” voice. There was no one definition of what Native peoples wanted from Constitutional reform reform “Familiar and Marketable” a a a a a An event is “newsworthy” when it is An culturally and socially recognizable (p. 132) 132) 2003 - Sudden death of 7 people in space 2003 shuttle Columbia exploding over Texas 7 students die same day by an avalanche students in B.C. in Both events covered in media because Both both were familiar and recognizable both Same day a fiery train collision in Same International Coverage International Canadian TV networks concentrate Canadian on a few countries that receive most of the coverage and the rest of the world is relatively ignored world a 1989 - focused news on end of the 1989 Cold War and fall of the Berlin Wall and downplayed historic changes taking place in South America (first free elections in Chile and Brazil in a Media stereotypes such as famine in Media Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Somalia (pictures of Black children with flies in their eyes) tear at our hearts but do not cover the stories on the human and political causes human a A Zimbabwean media analyst states Zimbabwean “News reports show outside white people feeding and helping black a Market share Market To capture our attention the media To companies provide “intense, unambiguous, and familiar” stories unambiguous, a “Reality based” t.v. popular a News geared to consumer taste a Celebrity stories, sports, violence, Celebrity invasion invasion a What about after the invasion? How What is Afghanistan faring now? (less a Analysis Analysis Events are made “intense, Events unambiguous, balanced, familiar and marketable” marketable” a What elements are downplayed? a Contrary facts a prior conditions a long term causes a underlying structures (bias) a Dominant culture vs. “other” “other” a a a a “Media reflects the big business values that Media maintain the Canadian economy and the social order based on it.” (p. 134) order Take Nuclear power: favours supporters of Take nuclear energy. (newspapers identify with the world view of the industry) world Media do cover social issues: racism, sexism, Media violence against women, poverty (presented as people with problems) people Voices of the “other” are downplayed while Voices dominant “middle class, white male” perspective upheld upheld Women in the media Women Under-represented a 17% of interviewees in newspapers, 17% radio and t.v. radio a Female journalists represent 38% of Female total in North America and 43% worldwide! worldwide! a Stereotyping Stereotyping a a a a a When covering Jamaican Canadians a study of When 2,622 articles covered topics this way: 2,622 45% about sports and entertainment 39% featured crime 2% covered individual or community success 2% stories stories Front page Globe and Mail referred to the Front terrorists in 9/11 “men from remote desert lands…ancient tribal cultures built on blood and revenge.” (Are Christians and Jews referred to like this?) like Influence of Advertising Influence The average American views 150,000 The tv commercials in their lifetime tv a Global spending on advertising $500 Global billion annually billion a Ideology “the doctrines, opinions, or Ideology way of thinking of an individual, class etc.; specifically the body of ideas on which a particular political, economic or social system is a Role of Ideology Role a a a “Dominant ideas that form the basis of an Dominant economic and political system and shape the manner of thinking of groups or classes of people within that system” classes People have “blind spots” based on class, People sex, language, ethnic and religious origin, education and work experience education “Ideology preserves structures and Ideology systems by making them appear legitimate, normal, and unchangeable.” legitimate, Comments Comments a a a “Our immigration laws stink. Just watch Our the news and you see all the crime. And they’re taking our jobs.” they’re Everyone has a bias and need to be aware Everyone of it or they will accept the dominant values without question and will not work towards change towards Consider the ideology that economic Consider growth is good for the well being of everyone. What do you think? (consider “Energy and the Environment” a “Technology from Past to Future” a Globalization and Development” a Ideological assumptions are social in Ideological the sense that they support the dominant structures of society dominant a Whose ideas are these? Whose a Canadian Ideology - Liberal Capitalism Capitalism Liberal Capitalism has evolved over Liberal several hundred years several a Capitalist - organizes the economy Capitalist based on private accumulation of wealth wealth a Liberal - enhances individual Liberal freedoms and maintains justice (is it social justice?) social a What does freedom mean? Freedom What a Dominant Ideology in Canada Canada Right of entrepreneurs to invest their Right money money a Favours the wealthy and powerful a Economic power in the hands of a Economic few few a What about the consequences to the What poor/working class/disabled etc? poor/working a Liberal capitalism has evolved and Liberal now looks at social justice to a Media and dissemination of ideology ideology Offer stories on poor and Offer unemployed but needs to focus more on root causes (corporate responsibility, profitability/downsizing, dangerous working conditions, environmental damage) damage) a Many people look critically at news a Many journalists present Many a Alternative Media sources Alternative Present social issues more deeply a Community newspapers, Aboriginal Community broadcasting, small and mediumbroadcasting, sized magazines etc a These media sources do not have These the far reaching abilities of major networks or newspapers (funding issues) issues) a What is the Canadian ideological What “blind spot?” “blind a Next chapters focus on social issues Next and analyzes the experiences of aged, Aboriginal peoples and women aged, a Does their reality clash with the Does dominant ideology of Canadian society? society? a Are they equal in society? a ...
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