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Lecture-2-F10 - EAS 111 General Announcements • Make sure...

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Unformatted text preview: EAS 111 General Announcements 8/25/10 • Make sure you attend your first lab this week! • We also have Lab 2 next week, starting Tuesday 8/31/10 • Get the CPS system units! • Exchange iClickers by Friday! • http://www.itap.purdue.edu/tlt/einstruction/ • Make sure you have and register the units by 9/8 – first use that Weds. • Guest lectures: Juan Herrera on Monday 8/30 & Dr. Saad Haq on Weds 9/1 EAS 111: Earth Science News U.S. research vessel sees few signs of spilled oil August 24th, 2010 Reuters: Scientists aboard a U.S. research ship have started an around-the-clock search for elusive signs of oil lurking beneath the Gulf of Mexico’s surface in what they jokingly call “Operation Dipstick.” •University of Georgia researchers reported ¾ of the BP spill oil is still in the water column •Woods Hole researchers show slower than anticipated degradation of oil in deep water, and project long residence time •Traveling in a radial pattern around the spill, the Pisces collects about fifty water samples each day. Some are tested in an onboard chemistry lab, while other are ferried by boat to onshore NOAA labs. •They have so far only found small spots or “sags” of dissolved oxygen around the Macondo well, an indication that oil-eating microbes have been at work, they said. No oil is visible at the surface near the well. •The 208.6-foot (63.6- meter) Pisces is one of about 10 vessels — some independent, some government and some hired by BP — searching for hydrocarbons in the Gulf. Earth and Atmospheric Sciences 111 Fall 2010 Plate Tectonics: Part 1 •An observational introduction •The Big Picture •Basic data and mechanisms Lecture 2 Observe the world map, noting the location of each Observe enlargement (more detailed views will follow) enlargement Pacific Pacific Northwest Northwest Tibet South America Japan 03.00.a1 South Atlantic Arabian Peninsula Observe features of the South Atlantic Ocean Ridge 2-3 km tall! Fracture Fracture zones Zigzags 03.00.a1c Observe features near South America Oceanic Oceanic trench trench ~ 6–11 km deep! Andes Interior Continental Continental shelf shelf 03.00.a1b Observe features near Japan an ap J Curving Curving arcs of islands islands Very long and Very very deep oceanic trenches trenches 03.00.a1e Observe features near the Arabian Peninsula Ar Pe ab ni ian ns ul a Persian Persian Gulf Gulf Red Sea Afar region f Gul den of A 03.00.a1f Observe some of the main features on Earth’s surface Oceanic fracture zones Continental shelves Plateaus Plateaus Submerged Submerged ridges and island arcs Linear Linear island chains chains Deep ocean Deep trenches trenches Mid-ocean ridges Oceanic plateaus Continents 03.01.a1 Observe the pattern of elevations (brown = high) Mountains in belts Southern Eurasia high Oceans vs. Oceans continents continents East Africa high Some belts next Some to trenches to Most of continents Most gentle and low gentle 03.02.b2 Observe the pattern of earthquakes (yellow dots) EQ in belts Mid-ocean ridges Southern Eurasia Trenches Mountain Mountain belts belts Sparse in some regions 03.02.a1 Observe the pattern of volcanoes (orange triangles) Belts Mid-ocean ridges (not all shown) Island arcs next Island to trenches to Oceanic Oceanic islands islands Red Sea Red and East Africa Africa Sparse in some regions Mountain belts Mountain next to trenches next 03.02.b1 Compare the distribution of earthquakes (yellow), Compare volcanoes (orange), and high elevations (brown) volcanoes EQ, volcanism, EQ, or mtn. building = tectonic activity tectonic Belts of tectonic activity divide lithosphere into tectonic plates tectonic 03.03.a1 Earth’s Magnetic Field Normal magnetic field 10.02.a Liquid outer core contains Liquid convection currents convection Reversed magnetic field Magnetic Stripes on Seafloor 10.02.d Observe the locations of different types of plate boundaries 03.03.c1 Compare these locations with mid-ocean ridges, Compare oceanic trenches, mountains belts, line of islands, etc. oceanic Three Types of Relative Plate Motions Move apart: Move divergent boundary divergent Move toward each other: Move convergent boundary con Move horizontally Move past one another: transform boundary transform 03.03.b1-3 Why? Why? What drives all this? 12.15.c3 CPS – starting 9/8/10! The deep parts of the Earth are: The A. B. hotter than the shallow parts colder than the shallow parts same temperature have no idea C. the D. I 05.04.b4 Convection: Essential Heat transfer IN Earth Essential Convection: How’s it work? Convection: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Rock material at the bottom gets hotter than Rock surroundings surroundings Expands Same material in more volume = less dense Density = Mass per amount of volume Less dense than surroundings = floats! Gets to top, cools off, gets more dense Sinks Whole thing goes around again EAS 111: Assignment for 8/30/10 • Exploring Geology – 10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.12 – Seafloor and Continental Margins – 11.11 – Continental rifting history on Earth ...
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