Lecture-8-F10

Lecture-8-F10 - EAS 111 General Announcements 9/27/10 •...

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Unformatted text preview: EAS 111 General Announcements 9/27/10 • PART II – Starting today • FOR LAB THIS WEEK AND NEXT – Bring your textbook! There are pictures and sections in there that will help you during the lab • Where are we going? (steadily into Fall!) – Today: Earth Materials I: Minerals and some important basic chemistry – Wednesday: Earth Materials II: Minerals and systematics related to tectonics – Next week: Igneous Processes • Then Sedimentary Rocks + Geologic Time EAS 111: Earth Science News Lab Exam 1 results (121 graded out of 156 total) Mean = 31.0 EAS 111: Earth Science News Lecture Exam 1 results Mean = 79.0 EAS 111: Earth Science News Lecture Part 1 results (All CPS points + Exam 1, max = 105) This is a low number of CPS points, mainly because of our technical difficulties with this system and late start. For Part 2 of the course, you should anticipate more like 20 points. Points are awarded for attempts at answers. In Blackboard you’ll see points for attempts (counted in the LecX-Att column), and the actual number you got right (LecX-CPS) – for your and my information. EAS 111: Earth Science News So how do I figure my running course grade? 1. Lab score/Lab max = X/120 = ? 2. ? x 0.4 (40% of your course grade) = ?? 3. Lecture Part 1 score = Y/105 = ??? 4. ??? x 0.6 (60% of your course grade) = ???? 5. ?? + ???? = your running course grade percentage Example: I have 95 lab points and 93 lecture points 1.95/120 = 0.79 2.0.79 x 0.4 = 0.32 3.93/105 = 0.89 4.0.89 x 0.6 = 0.53 5.0.32 (lab) + 0.53 (lecture) = 0.85 = 85% = B Earth and Atmospheric Sciences 111 Fall 2009 Earth Materials I •The Rock Cycle – intro •Rocks & Minerals definitions •Some basic Earth chemistry •Mineral basics Lecture 8 05.04.b5 What Can Happen to a Rock? Weathering Erosion and transport Deposition 01.06.a1 01.06.a1 a iiall Bur Bur Solidification ft liift Upl Up ifftt plli Up U Melting Deformation Deformation and metamorphism metamorphism Observe that these rocks have more Observe than one type of mineral than 04.02.b Crystalline Clastic CPS: So how do we define a Rock? Rock A. the solid mineral material forming part of the the surface of the earth and other planets surface any natural material, hard or soft, having a distinctive mineral composition distinctive an aggregate of one or more minerals or a an body of undifferentiated mineral matter body naturally-formed, consolidated material naturally-formed, composed of grains of one or more minerals composed B. C. D. What Is a Mineral? What Mineral Solid Ordered internal Ordered structure structure Natural Inorganic Specific chemical Specific composition composition 04.01.b CPS: What is the highest level of Chemistry course you’ve taken? Chemistry A. B. College level Chemistry (here or elsewhere) Advanced High School level Chemistry (like AP or honors-level) AP Basic High School level Chemistry Only bits and pieces of Chemistry in other Only courses or training courses What’s Chemistry? (no formal course work) C. D. E. Average Abundances for the Entire Earth Oxygen Magnesium Silicon 04.10.b2 Iron Nickel Nickel Sulfur Minerals in Different Parts of Earth Continental crust Oceanic crust Upper Upper mantle mantle Core 04.10.a Average Abundances in Earth’s Crust Some Some abundant metals metals Oxygen is most Oxygen abundant element abundant Silicon is second most Silicon abundant; aluminum is third is Iron is most abundant Iron transition metal transition 04.10.b1 Major Classes of Rock-Forming Minerals Carbonates Silicates Oxides Halides 04.06.b4 Native minerals Sulfides Sulfates CPS: In the Earth, Silicon and Oxygen are concentrated… A. A. B. C. …primarily in the core with iron and magnesium …primarily in the core as free elements …primarily as oxide and carbonate minerals in primarily the crust and mantle the …primarily as silicate minerals in the crust and primarily mantle mantle D. Silicate Minerals Silicate Silicate tetrahedron tetrahedron Tetrahedra Tetrahedra bond together and with other elements elements 04.07.b Silica fun facts Silica 5 A Silicon (Si) and Oxygen (O) combine to form the Silicon basic silica tetrahedron, which is the fundamental building block of rock material All by itself, the silica is not electrically neutral [SiO4]-4 Needs to bond Needs with something with (metals, itself, etc.) The more silica The present in a mineral structure, the more silica will bond to itself the A Internal Structure Influences External Form Internal Independent Tetrahedra 04.07.c Olivine Tetrahedra bond to Tetrahedra other elements, not other tetrahedra other Single Chains Tetrahedra bond Tetrahedra together to form single chains single Pyroxene 04.07.c 04.05.c3 Double Chains Tetrahedra bond Tetrahedra to form double chains chains 04.07.c Amphibole 04.05.c5 Sheet Silicates Mica 04.07.c 04.05.c1 Frameworks Tetrahedra bonded together Tetrahedra and with other elements in 3D framework in Quartz Feldspar 04.07.c EAS 111: Assignments for 9/29/10 • Reading in Exploring Geology – Chapter 5 – all of it – EXCEPT: 5.12, 5.13 • Study 5.3, 5.4, and 5.5 carefully. These are rather technical and underlie your understanding of 5.6-5.9 which are focused on tectonic settings and processes • You may find 19.0 and 19.4 to provide good background on the formation of Earth and the solar system. In general - we will refer back to all of this material for Lectures 10 and 11 as well. • 5.15 is excellent practice for lab, and may be the subject of lecture ...
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