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Unformatted text preview: Infection types: Infection Viral Caused by a virus Infections are usually lifelong
• • • • Herpes (HSV) HPV / Genital Warts HPV Hepatitis (A, B, & C strains) HIV Genital Herpes Genital
(herpes simplex virus 1 & 2) (herpes ~ 45 million cumulative cases in U.S. 45 Majority of cases of genital herpes due to HSV2, but growing percentage due to HSV-1 Transmission: Sexual contact (vaginal, anal, or oral sex) Sexual Skin-to-skin contact on mouth or genitals Can be spread when symptoms NOT present; can Can shed beyond area covered by condoms shed Incubation & symptoms of genital herpes: genital Incubation period: Symptoms can appear 2-20 days after contact May lay dormant for extended period of time Small, painful blisters or sores on mouth or genitals Flu-like symptoms Itching or burning before blisters appear Symptoms may persist initially, then remit, only to be Symptoms followed by intermittent bouts across years followed Symptoms (both sexes): Symptoms Fluid-filled vesicles (blisters) on shaft of penis on Ulcerated (open) sores on the vulva Ulcerated Detection and treatment: Detection Testing: Testing: NO routine testing w/STI checks Swab from sores Blood test available Blood Viral cause: no cure Viral Suppressive therapy (e.g., Valtrex, acyclovir) Suppressive Symptom treatment Symptom Treatment: Treatment: HPV & Genital Warts HPV
(human papilloma virus) (human ~20 million cumulative cases in the US ~20 More than 30 subtypes of sexually transmitted More HPV HPV Transmission: Sexual contact (vaginal, anal, or oral sex) Sexual Skin-to-skin contact of infected areas Hand-to-genital contact to one’s own genitals Can be spread when symptoms NOT visible; can Can shed beyond area covered by condoms shed Highly transmissible Highly Incubation & symptoms of genital warts: genital Incubation period: Symptoms can appear 3-6 months after contact May lay dormant for extended period of time Small, bumpy, cauliflower-like warts on/around the genitals Small, and anus and Itching & burning around genitals Cellular changes on cervix, penis, or anus Symptoms may persist initially, then remit, only to be Symptoms followed by intermittent bouts across years followed Symptoms (both sexes): Symptoms External genital warts (condylomas) along labia majora and minora along Warts on vulvar folds and descending towards anus descending Detection and treatment: Detection Testing: Testing: NO routine testing w/STI checks Visual diagnosis Pap smears may detect cervical changes Pap Treatment: Treatment: Viral cause: no cure Viral Most HPV infections are transient Warts: topical ointments, or use of freezing, Warts: burning, or applying a laser to the growths burning, HPV & Cancer HPV Different subtypes of HPV can result in: No symptoms or effects Genital warts HPV 6,11 Cellular changes on the cervix, penis, or anus Cellular HPV16,18,52,58 HPV16,18,52,58 Majority of cervical cancer cases related to Majority HPV HPV Annual pap smears essential for sexually Annual active women (intercourse or otherwise) active Lesions can be destroyed by freezing, laser, Lesions or loop excision, but cell changes may reoccur reoccur Hepatitis A gastroenterological disease, featuring gastroenterological inflammation of the liver. The clinical signs and prognosis, as well as the therapy, depend on the cause. Hepatitis A, B and C; each of these forms is Hepatitis caused by a different virus caused All three types can be transmitted through All sexual intercourse, however, B is transmitted more often than A or C more A relatively common among homosexual men; A relatively and B among drug users and Signs and symptoms jjoint aches, abdominal pain, vomiting 2-3 times oint per day for the first 5 days, defecation, loss of appetite, dark urine, fever, enlarged liver and yellowing of the eyes and skin yellowing Some chronic forms of hepatitis show very few Some of these signs and are only present when the longstanding inflammation has led to the replacement of liver cells by connective tissue disease process is referred to as cirrhosis of the disease liver liver lliver function tests can also indicate hepatitis. iver Hepatitis A caused by a picornovirus transmitted to humans through methods such as contaminated food, transmitted sexual contact or drinking contaminated water (3rd world problem) sexual It causes an acute form of hepatitis and does not have a chronic It stage stage patient's immune system makes antibodies against hepatitis A that patient's confer immunity against future infection confer People with hepatitis A are advised to rest, stay hydrated and avoid People alcohol alcohol a vaccine is available that will prevent infection from hepatitis A for vaccine life life Strict personal hygiene and the avoidance of raw and unpeeled Strict foods can help prevent an infection foods Infected persons already begin excreting the hepatitis A virus with Infected their stool two weeks after the appearance of the first symptoms. The time between the infection and the start of the illness can run from 15 to 45 days, and approximately 15% of sufferers may experience relapsing symptoms from six months to a year following initial diagnosis. Hepatitis B Hepatitis caused by a hepadna virus, which can cause both acute and caused chronic hepatitis chronic Chronic hepatitis develops in the 15% of patients who are unable to Chronic eliminate the virus after an initial infection eliminate methods of transmission include blood, tattoos, sexually, or in utero; methods in about half of cases the source of infection cannot be determined. In the United States, 95% of patients clear their infection and In develop antibodies against hepatitis B virus. 5% of patients do not clear the infection and develop chronic infection; only these people are at risk of long term complications of hepatitis B. are Patients with chronic hepatitis B have antibodies against hepatitis B, Patients but these antibodies are not enough to clear the infection that establishes itself in the DNA of the affected liver cells. The continued production of virus combined with antibodies is a likely cause of immune complex disease seen in these patients. A vaccine is available that will prevent infection from hepatitis B for vaccine life life Hepatitis B infections result in 500,000 to 1,200,000 deaths per year Hepatitis worldwide worldwide Hepatitis C Hepatitis Hepatitis C (originally "non-A non-B hepatitis") can be transmitted Hepatitis through contact with blood (including through sexual contact where the two parties' blood is mixed). Hepatitis C may lead to a chronic form of hepatitis It can remain asymptomatic for 10-20 years. No vaccine is available It for hepatitis C, although in January 2007 researchers at the University of Washington announced a breakthrough which they predict will lead to a vaccine within five years predict Patients with hepatitis C are prone to severe hepatitis if they Patients contract either hepatitis A or B, so all hepatitis C patients should be immunized against hepatitis A and hepatitis B if they are not already immune. hepatitis C itself is a very lethal virus, and it can result in death; hepatitis most people who have gotten hepatitis C have died. The virus can cause cirrhosis of the liver. HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) HIV uman mmunodeficiency ~40,000 new infections each year in U.S. Virus that causes AIDS: leads to compromised Virus immune system & almost certain death immune Transmission: Fluid-based (blood, semen, vaginal fluids, & breast milk) Fluid-based (blood, Via unprotected sex, sharing needles, blood contact, Via & mother-to-child mother-to-child HIV testing HIV May take up to 3 - 6 months after exposure for a May detectable level of HIV antibodies to accumulate in the blood for testing. in Therefore, testing soon after an exposure or Therefore, risky encounter will not determine whether you have the virus. Repeated testing must be done six months after Repeated each partner/ risky encounter. each ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/14/2011 for the course HK 225 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '10 term at Purdue University-West Lafayette.
- Spring '10