• What additional topics should your CS-1 students be familiar with? The strong consensus that emerged from the intersections of these sources formed the working outline for this book. Students who master this material before taking CS-1 have a strong foundation upon which to continue in computer science. Although our intention was to write a CS-0 text, our reviewers have pointed out that the material also forms a strong breadth-first background that can serve as a companion to a programming-language introduction to computer science. Organization In Chapter 1, we set the stage with the analogy that a computing system is like an onion that has evolved layer by layer over time. The history of hardware and software is presented beginning with the computer and machine language, the heart of the onion. Higher level languages such as FORTRAN, Lisp, Pascal, C, C++, and Java followed, along with the ever-increasing understanding of the programming process using such tools as top-down design and object-oriented design. The operating system with its
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