Computing system Computer hardware, software, and data, which interact to solve problems Computer hardware The physical elements of a computing system Computer software The programs that provide the instructions that a computer executes 4 Chapter 1 The Big Picture Goals After studying this chapter, you should be able to: ± describe the layers of a computer system. ± describe the concept of abstraction and its relationship to computing. ± describe the history of computer hardware and software. ± describe the changing role of the computer user. ± distinguish between systems programmers and applications programmers. ± distinguish between computing as a tool and computing as a discipline. 1.1 Computing Systems In this book we explore various aspects of computing systems. Note that we use the term computing system, not just computer. A computer is a device. A computing system , on the other hand, is a dynamic entity, used to solve problems and interact with its environment. A computing system is composed of hardware, software, and the data that they manage. Computer
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