1.1 Computing Systems 5 Information Hardware Programming Operating system Application Communication Figure 1.1 The layers of a computing system pictured in Figure 1.1 and form the general organization of this book. This is the “big picture” that we continually come back to as we explore different aspects of computing systems. You rarely, if ever, take a bite out of an onion as you would an apple. Rather, you separate the onion into concentric rings. Likewise, in this book we explore aspects of computing one layer at a time. We peel each layer separately and explore it by itself. Each layer, in itself, is not that complicated. In fact, we point out that a computer actually only does very simple tasks. It just does them so blindingly fast that many simple tasks can be combined to do larger, more complicated tasks. When the various computer layers are all brought together, each playing its own role, amazing things result from the combination of these basic ideas. Let’s discuss each of these layers briefly, and identify where in this book
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