1.2The History of Computing19languages developed. These high-level languagesallowed the programmerto write instructions using more English-like statements.Two of the languages developed during the second generation are stillused today. They are FORTRAN (a language designed for numerical appli-cations) and COBOL (a language designed for business applications).FORTRAN and COBOL developed quite differently. FORTRAN startedout as a simple language and grew with additional features added to itover the years. In contrast, COBOL was designed first, and then imple-mented. It has changed little over time.Another language that was designed during this period that is still in usetoday is Lisp. Lisp differs markedly from FORTRAN and COBOL andwas not widely accepted. Lisp was used mainly in artificial intelligenceapplications and research. Dialects of Lisp are among the languages ofchoice today in artificial intelligence. Scheme, a dialect of Lisp, is used atsome schools as an introductory programming language.
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