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Dale - Computer Science Illuminated 46

Dale - Computer Science Illuminated 46 - 1.2 The History of...

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1.2 The History of Computing 19 languages developed. These high-level languages allowed the programmer to write instructions using more English-like statements. Two of the languages developed during the second generation are still used today. They are FORTRAN (a language designed for numerical appli- cations) and COBOL (a language designed for business applications). FORTRAN and COBOL developed quite differently. FORTRAN started out as a simple language and grew with additional features added to it over the years. In contrast, COBOL was designed first, and then imple- mented. It has changed little over time. Another language that was designed during this period that is still in use today is Lisp. Lisp differs markedly from FORTRAN and COBOL and was not widely accepted. Lisp was used mainly in artificial intelligence applications and research. Dialects of Lisp are among the languages of choice today in artificial intelligence. Scheme, a dialect of Lisp, is used at some schools as an introductory programming language.
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