108 Chapter 4 Gates and Circuits circuits with a high gate-to-pin ratio. That is, many gates are combined to create complex circuits that require only a few input and output values. Multiplexers are an example of this type of circuit. 4.7 CPU Chips The most important integrated circuit in any computer is the Central Processing Unit, or CPU. The processing of a CPU is discussed in the next chapter, but it is important to recognize at this point that the CPU is, in one sense, merely an advanced circuit with input and output lines. Each CPU chip has a large number of pins through which essentially all communication in a computer system occurs. This communication connects the CPU to memory and I/O devices, which are themselves, at fundamental levels, advanced circuits. The explanation of CPU processing and its interaction with other devices take us to another level of computer processing, sometimes referred to as component architecture . Though still primarily focused on hardware,
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