Machine language The language made up of binary-coded instruc-tions that is used directly by the computer 7.3 Machine Language 189 Where does the data that gets stored in the computer memory come from? How does the human ever get to see what is stored there, such as the results of some calculation? There are other instructions that specify the interaction between an input device and the CPU and between the CPU and an output device. 7.2 Levels of Abstraction When we described the problem-solving process in Chapter 6, we said that an abstract step is one for which some details remain unspecified and a concrete step is one for which the details are fully specified. How do we know when a step is concrete? The answer depends on the programming language in which we are going to express our algorithm. In our address example in Chapter 6, we assumed that the task or step Sort list on lastFirst field was fully specified but that step Print the list was not. There are programming languages in which these assumptions are true.
This is the end of the preview. Sign up
access the rest of the document.