Directory treeA struc-ture showing the nesteddirectory organization ofthe file systemRoot directoryThetopmost directory, inwhich all others arecontained11.2Directories357Other operating systems break down their protection schemes indifferent ways, but the goal is the same: to control access to protect againstdeliberate attempts to gain inappropriate access, as well as minimize inad-vertent problems caused by well-intentioned but hazardous users.11.2DirectoriesWe established early in this chapter that a directory is a named collectionof files. It is a way to group files so that you can organize them in a logicalmanner. For example, you may group all of your papers and notes for aparticular class into a directory created for that class. The operating systemmust carefully keep track of directories and the files they contain.A directory, in most operating systems, is represented as a file. Thedirectory file contains data about the other files in the directory. For any
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