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Dale - Computer Science Illuminated 395

Dale - Computer Science Illuminated 395 - gating...

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368 Chapter 11 File Systems and Directories Denial of Service (DoS) attacks are not viruses but are a method hackers use to deprive the user or organization of services. DoS attacks usually just flood the server’s resources, making the system unusable. Society views these computer viruses as serious offenses, and people who launch DoS attacks face federal criminal charges. In the 2000 attack on Yahoo, for example, the server was flooded with requests that lacked verifiable return addresses. When the server could not confirm the fake addresses it waited for a few moments; then when it finally denied the request, it was loaded with more requests that had fake return addresses—which tied up the server indefinitely. A DoS attack uses the inherent limitations of networking to its advantage, and, in this case, it successfully brought the site down. The reality of these attacks highlights the need to reevaluate security for both personal computers and the Internet. Scanning for viruses, taking proper precautions when downloading material, and investi-
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Unformatted text preview: gating attachments before opening them are useful ways to protect your computer. Internet Service Providers (ISPs) are often proactive in their attempt to prevent viruses and DoS attacks and install firewalls that foster security. Although no system is impenetrable, steps can be taken to improve the security of computer systems and networks. Key Terms Absolute path pg. 362 Binary file pg. 353 Direct file access pg. 357 Directory pg. 352 Directory tree pg. 359 Disk scheduling pg. 365 File pg. 352 File extension pg. 354 File System pg. 352 File type pg. 354 Path pg. 362 Relative path pg. 362 Root directory pg. 359 Sequential file access pg. 357 Text file pg. 353 Working directory pg. 361 Exercises 1. What is a file? 2. Distinguish between a file and a directory. 3. Distinguish between a file and a file system. 4. Why is a file a generic concept and not a technical one? 5. Name and describe the two basic classifications of files....
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