psych exam 1 study guide

psych exam 1 study guide - Introduction to Psychology...

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Introduction to Psychology psychology’s relationship to philosophy epistemology: study of how we gain knowledge intuition authority rationalism empiricism : observation, experimentation combined with logical reasoning= scientific method objective reality: subjective reality : structuralism: believed that psychology should use introspection ( self observation of ones own experience ) to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and see how elements are related – testing senses functionalism : inspired by William James believed that psychology should focus on the purpose and adaptive functions of consciousness – testing mental Wundt’s/ Hall : founded psychology lab and focused on structure of conscious experience , influenced by reductionism used introspection = beginnings of structuralism William James: influenced by Darwin consciousness= functionalism believed that psychology is embedded in our culture and intellectual influences: mental testing, patterns , diff btw sexes Freud: (psychoanalytic) investigated the unconscious determinants of behavior and sexuality Watson: “behaviroism” argued that psychology should only study observable behavior (science of behavior) emphasized the importance of environment over heredity ( stimulus response) Skinner : behaviorism should also only study observable behavior “free will is an illusion” perspectives in psychology -Biological : behavior is determined by physiological factors and processes. Research looks at brain activity during various behaviors, thoughts, or feeling. Also concerned with genetics+ cognitive -Evolutionary : roots in functionalism, behavior arises as a function of our adaptive responses to the environment: natural selection , looks at similarities btw humans and other animals -Psychodynamic: behavior is influenced by the unconscious- sexuality plays a role in behavior -Behavioral: nurture NOT nature has an influence , emphasize environment , animal research -Cognitive : thought, info processing: memory, decision making, emotions, explains a lot about how we gain and use knowledge -Humanistic: aka: phenomenological – behavior is determined by each indiviuals capacity to think and act: uniqueness of individual, biggest drive toward highest potential. Maslow + rogers subdisciplines of psychology : Biological* • Developmental* • Cognitive/Perception*
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• Engineering • Personality* • Clinical • Counseling • Community • Health • Educational • School • Social* • Industrial/ Organizational • Quantitative* • Sports • Forensic • Environmental Research Methods goal of psychological research: We want an accurate understanding of psychological phenomena.
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