Chapter 28 and 29 - Sasha Rozenberg Per 1 Chapter 28 1 What...

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Sasha Rozenberg 1/10/07 Per. 1 Chapter 28: 1. What made women such central forces in the progressive crusade? What specific backgrounds and ideologies did they bring to the public arena? What were the strengths and limitations of the progressive emphasis on providing special protection to children and women? A crucial focus for women's activism was the settlement house movement. Settlement houses exposed middle-class women to poverty, political corruption, and intolerable working and living conditions. Settlement houses provided a side door to public life. Many middle class women found themselves now having literary clubs where educated women would get together. The notion of “separate spheres” told a woman that she belonged at home while the man worked. Most female progressives defended their new activities as an extension of their traditional roles of wife and mother. Their issues included keeping children out of sweat shops, attacking tuberculosis getting pensions for single mothers and making sure that only safe food products were eaten at home. Female activists worked through organizations like the Women's Trade Union League and the National Consumers League. Even though these organizations were small but they were a step into a national stage for feminist reformers and a step into social investigation and advocacy. Florence Kelley took control of the National Consumers League in 1899 and mobilized female consumers to pressure for laws safeguarding women and children in the workplace. Attorney Louis D. Brandeis persuaded the Supreme Court to accept law protecting women and children by present evidence of the harmful conditions and the factory labor which was harsh on women and children. Caught up in the crusade, some states controlled, restricted, or abolished alcohol by the eighteenth amendment in 1919. 2. Discuss Roosevelt’s support for conservation and consumer protection. Why were these among the most successful progressive achievements? After botulism was found in American meats, foreign governments threatened to ban all American meat imports. At this time Americans were desperate for safer canned products. Backed by the public, President Roosevelt passed the Meat Inspection Act of 1906. The act stated that the preparation of meat shipped over state lines would be subject to federal inspection. Even though the largest packers didn’t like certain features of the act they accepted it to push away smaller businesses so there would be less competition. While at the same time they would get approval from the government on their exports. The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 were designed to prevent the adulteration and mislabeling of foods and pharmaceuticals. They were the most successful progressive achievements because now that the food was safely packaged meat companies would precede with selling meat to Europe and women reformers would have good healthy clean food to set on the table.
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