ch 2 ch 3 - Development of Anthropology The science of...

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The science of anthropology originated within the historical context of European culture. Concepts of “savage” or “civilized” peoples were initially based on how close they approximated European ideals of the 19 th and 20 th century. Imagine how different the anthropological measurements of “civilized behavior” would be if the discipline originated in Japan, or Zimbabwe, for example! Define and understand all new vocabulary in this chapter and throughout the textbook. Anthropological Perspective : Truth is a multifaceted gem, believed from different perspectives. Example: Co-sleeping practices, cross-cultural realities. In Westernized industrial societies, we believe that sleeping apart from our infants builds character and fosters independence, In fact, the practice of infant/parent co-sleeping encourages the development of self awareness and prepares a child for the complex world ahead. Skip to page 127-128 and read the short section on self-awareness. I) Four fields of Anthropology: A) physical / biological anthropology: 1) Human evolution (paleoanthropology): bio-cultural approach Medical/genetic/forensic applications, physical variability Primatology (non-human primate behavioral studies) B) socio-cultural: 1) archaeology: analyzing remnants of ancient societies to infer cultural behavior from material remains. (also historical archaeology) Cultural Resource Management = the real work of many modern archaeologists 2) linguistic: human language origins and dispersal patterns; also used to identify cultural values through number of words for items or practices. 3) ethnology: “ethno” = people: comparative study of present-day groups of people around the world (also known as “cultural” anthropology) through the construction of ethnographies C) The fifth field: Applied Anthro Helping facilitate change (corporate, cultural, environmental, etc.) while continuing to recognize and integrate traditional systems and ideas into the new paradigm. Also used to rediscover and re-introduce traditional practices as appropriate. II) How does an ethnologist work? A) Participant Observation: long-term first-hand experience and observation of all aspects of everyday life (living in and with the observed society, often for years.) B) Holistic Perspective: “big picture” observation of interaction and interdependence of every aspect of culture (beliefs, marriage, economics, politics, etc.) (Example: integrated culture system of the Kapauku of New Guinea) C) Fieldwork: 1) we are all culture bound: “enculturated” into culturally specific normal patterns of behavior within acceptable social parameters. 2) avoid ethnocentric thinking (diff. between culture-bound and ethnocentric) 3) cultural relativism: accept cultural practices within social context: seeing others through their own eyes, seeing ourselves as others see us. 4)
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ch 2 ch 3 - Development of Anthropology The science of...

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