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Mammoth Cave National Park Petrified Forest National Park Mammoth Cave National Park Mammoth Vital Statistics West Central Kentucky 51,000 acres 82 square miles Human History Human ~2000 BC native american camp 1000 BC to AD 900 Woodlands Culture Wooden bowls, gourds, sandals, woven cord, hearths Collected gypsum Mummified body, 390 BC Settlers (re)discovered cave in ~1799 War of 1812, potassium nitrate was mined 1815-1837 several changes in ownership 1837 purchase by Dr. John Croghan $10k 1837-1859 Stephen Bishop, slave and explorer 1926 authorized to become NP 1941 NP Established Geologic Features Geologic Primary features related to solution of Primary limestone by groundwater limestone Cave System – Formation of cavities Initial formation in St. Genevieve Limestone Rain water absorbs CO2 in atmos. and soil H2O + CO2 = carbonic acid → dissolves LS dissolves Flow along joints, bedding enlarges to cavity Geologic Features Geologic Lowering of groundwater level, usually by Lowering deepening of rivers. deepening Cavities drain of water and CaCO3 can be Cavities deposited as Dripstone features deposited Cave Deposits Travertine (calcite) dripstone Sediments washed into cave Breakdown, from collapse of rock into cavity Types of Flowstone Types Stalactites Stalagmites Columns & Pillars Curtains Flowstone Helictites Cave Life Cave Mammoth Cave blindfish Eyes degenerate or absent Lack of body pigmentation Adaptations to cave life Blind Crayfish Cave crickets Beetles Worms Spiders Bats Surface Features Surface Karst Topography Sinkholes Disappearing Streams Geologic History Geologic Devonian – New Albany Shale Mississippian – marine deposits ~1200ft Pennsylvanian – shore then river deposits Permian – Cincinnati Arch uplift and tilting Mz – erosion Mz Petrified Forest National Park Vital Statistics Vital East-central Arizona ~94,000 acres 146 square acres Human History Human 500 – 800 Basket Maker Culture Pit houses Rectangular houses of stone or adobe Pueblos, some made of petrified logs 1400 Human History Human 1850’s first explored by Americans 1878 settlers arrive 1883 RR went through area now park 1896 became Forest Reserve 1898-1900 USGS study 1906 TR National Monument 1921 discovery of Phytosaurs 1931 enlargement 1933 discovery of Fossil Leaves 1962 enlargement and upgrade to NP Geologic Features Geologic Wood petrified by ground water activity Silicification, preserved by silica replacement Logs deposited by flood Volcanic ash Rainwater percolates and dissolves silica Above certain concentration silica precipitates Fills voids first, then replaces cells Colors Colors Iron Oxides – (jasper) shades of Iron red/yellow/brown and green red/yellow/brown Manganese – (amethyst) purple Carbon – (“flint”) black Pure silica – (rock crystal) clear or white Tiny crystals – (chalcedony) opaque blue Tiny to grey Parallel bands – (agate) several colors Plant Fossils – over 40 species Plant Conifers Araucarioxylon arizonicum – main tree
• Up to 120 ft tall, 7 feet dia (3-4 ft average) Woodworthina Arizonica Schilderina adamanica Calamites – 30 feet tall, 1 foot diameter Ferns – 19 species Cycads – pineapple base with palm leaves Flowering Plants – primitive Plant Fragments Impressions and carbon films Fossil Animals Fossil Phytosuars – Triassic Croc-like reptile 25ft Labyrinthodont – thick-skulled amphibian Labyrinthodont related to salamanders, 5ft long related Geologic Features (con’t) Geologic Badlands Topography in Painted Desert Geologic History Geologic Triassic Moenkopi sandstone Shinarump congl. Chinle formation – shale & siltstone plus ash Chinle from volcanism in CA and NV from Tr-Jr – transgression of sea – marine seds K-early Cz Larimide orogeny – uplift of CP Cz - erosion Legendary explanations Legendary Result of curse by hungry goddess Paiute Tribe – shafts of the arrows of the Paiute Thunder God, Shinuau Thunder Navajo Tribe – bones of the great giant, Yietso ...
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- Spring '10
- National Park Service, cave, Mammoth Cave National Park, Petrified Forest National Park, Geologic Features Geologic