Chapter 5 - Types of Reactions

Chapter 5 - Types of Reactions - CHEMISTRY What is the...

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1 CHEMISTRY What is the world made of? The material world that we live in is the macroscopic counter part to a microscopic world of atoms & molecules. We will become familiar with the various atoms & the molecules they form. Also, the states of matter & physical or chemical change & the tools we use to describe matter & its changes - measurement & mathematical relationships We begin with a brief review of … __________________________________________________ The Periodic Table Mendeleev (1869) When the elements are ordered according to atomic mass , the properties vary in a periodic fashion eg. Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs 3 11 19 37 55 atomic # 8 8 18 18 spacing are all similar they form a “ group ”, the alkali metals - a column in the table
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2 The position ( order ) of an element in periodic table = atomic number = # of protons in nucleus of atom KNOW FORM OF TABLE KNOW THE FIRST 20 ELEMENTS ATOMIC NUMBER , SYMBOL , NAME , & POSITION IN TABLE. Columns form groups labeled by roman numerals Rows form periods
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3 Group I: Alkali metals Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr soft metals the most reactive metals react with most nonmetals to form ionic salts (not with noble gases though) egs. 2 Li(s) + H 2 (g) 2 LiH(s) lithium hydride 2 Na(s) + Cl 2 (g) 2 NaCl(s) sodium chloride - table salt __________________________________________________ Group II: Alkaline earth metals harder , higher melting points (than alkali metals) react more slowly with nonmetals egs. Ca(s) + H 2 (g) CaH 2 (s) 2 Mg(s) + O 2 (g) 2 MgO(s) Salts of group I and II metals with nonmetals are generally ionic (Be is an exception). Electrical conductivity
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4 Electrical conductivity do not conduct ionic liquids (high T) do conduct covalent liquids do not conduct eg. pure water has an extremely low conductivity However, dissolve a metal halide in H 2 O - the resulting solution is a good conductor . metal halides are … Electrolytes produce conducting solutions in water Covalent compounds are Non-electrolytes produce non-conducting solutions in water Solubility & Precipitation Reactions A precipitation reaction results when an insoluble solid is formed from solvated ions brought together by mixing solutions of soluble substances eg. AgNO 3 (aq) + NaCl(aq) AgCl(s) + NaNO 3 (aq) solid particles precipitate out of solution
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Ag + (aq) + NO 3 (aq) + Na + (aq) + Cl (aq) AgCl(s) + Na + (aq) + NO 3 (aq) precipitates these ions because AgCl(s) remain in solution is an insoluble (in H 2 O) solid What solids are soluble? Solid classified as … Solubility in water (@ 25 ° C) soluble 0.1 mol L 1 sparingly soluble 0.01 to 0.1 mol L 1 insoluble 0.01 mol L 1 eg. most sulfates (SO 4 2 ) are soluble exceptions: Ca 2+ , Sr 2+ , Ba 2+ & Pb 2+ sulfates Learn: Table 4.1 on page 139 Solubility refers to equilibrium between solid & ions in saturated solution eg. Ag + (aq) + Cl (aq)
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Chapter 5 - Types of Reactions - CHEMISTRY What is the...

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