Ch 7 Deviance.docx - Ch 7 Deviance Crime and Social Control Deviance according to William Graham Sumner is a violation of established contextual

Ch 7 Deviance.docx - Ch 7 Deviance Crime and Social Control...

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Ch 7 Deviance, Crime and Social Control Deviance according to William Graham Sumner is a violation of established contextual, cultural or social norms, whether folkways, mores or codified law One of the positive contributions of deviances is that it fosters social change Ex: Rosa Parks violated social norms when she refused to move to the “black section”, Little Rock Nine broke customs of segregation to attend an Arkansas public school Deviance depends on many factors including location, audience and the individual committing the act Social Control - the regulation and enforcement of norms Positive sanctions – are rewards given for conforming to norms o Ex: promotion at work for working hard Negative sanctions- punishments for violating norms o Ex: being arrested for shoplifting Informal Sanctions Emerge in face-to-face social interactions o Ex: wearing flip-flops to church Formal sanctions- ways to officially recognize and enforce norm violations o Ex: if a student violates the college’s code of conduct, they might be expelled o Ex: soldier who saves a life may receive an official commendation Theoretical Perspectives on Deviance Emile Durkheim believed that deviance is a necessary part of a successful society Ex: it challenges people’s present views When deviance is punished it reaffirms currently held social norms, which also contributes to society Robert Merton: Strain Theory
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Notes that access to socially acceptable goals plays a part in determining whether a person conforms or deviates Conformity o Choose to not deviate o Pursue their goals to the extent that they can through socially accepted means Innovation o Purse goals they cannot reach through legitimate means by instead using criminal or deviant means Ritualism o Lower their goals until they can reach through socially acceptable ways Members of society focus on conformity rather than attaining a distant dream Retreatism o Other retreat and reject society’s goals and means o
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