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Ans 5 - v1

# Ans 5 - v1 - Projection matrix...

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Projection matrix Orthogonal projection Let E be a vector space, and S a subspace of E . Project a vector x orthogonally on S , and denote u the projection of x . How can we calculate u ? The problem is not to be ignored by the statistician as it appears in several important occasions : * Principal Component Analysis ( PCA ) is all about orthogonal projections. * Multiple Linear Regression is fundamentally a problem in orthogonal projection. * The distributional and independence properties of quadratic forms in multivariate normal vectors are also fundamental in problems of variance decomposition ( ANOVA and Multiple Linear Regression), and call on the concept of orthogonal projection. Projection matrices Orthogonal projection problems can be nicely represented and treated within the framework of Linear Algebra. Projection of a vector "Orthogonal projection on S " is a linear operator, and can therefore be conveniently represented by a matrix P S . We'll show that if Z S is a matrix whose columns form an orthonormal basis of the subspace S , then the orthogonal projection u of any vector x is given by : u = P S x = ( Z S Z' S ) x Uniqueness of the projection matrix From the above result, it would seem that the projection matrix P S depends on the particular orthonormal basis chosen for spanning S . In fact, we'll show that P S does not depend on the choice of this basis. In other words, let

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Ans 5 - v1 - Projection matrix...

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