EBME 306 LECTURES 1-2 FALL-2008-ZIATS compressed

EBME 306 LECTURES 1-2 FALL-2008-ZIATS compressed -...

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INTRODUCTION to BIOCOMPATIBILITY Readings for October 31 and November 3: Biomaterials: The Intersection of Biology and Materials Science , J.S. Temenoff and A.G. Mikos, Pearson/Prentice Hall, 2008, pp.7-9, 314-324, 353-365, 393-398, 437-438
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BIOMATERIAL IMPLANT RESPONSE SURGICAL IMPLANT of BIOMATERIAL SURGICAL PROCEDURE INFLAMMATION, IMMUNE RESPONSE, HEALING, TOXICITY, CARCINOGENICITY? TISSUE RETRIEVAL and EVALUATION
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BIOMATERIALS-TISSUE INTERACTIONS
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BIOMATERIALS-TISSUE INTERACTIONS Hemostasis/Thrombosis
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THE NEW TECHNOLOGY TISSUE ENGINEERING
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BIOCOMPATIBILITY “The ability of a material to perform with an appropriate host response in a specific application”
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BIOCOMPATIBILITY N WHY DO BIOMATERIALS FAIL? N PATHOGENESIS of BIOMATERIAL FAILURE
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PATHOGENESIS of BIOMATERIAL FAILURE SEQUENCE of EVENTS THAT LEAD to the STRUCTURAL or FUNCTIONAL ABNORMALITIES = the PATHOGENIC MECHANISM(S) A---- B---- C---- Implant Failure- --- Remove Biomaterial Implant Morbidity or Mortality
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DIAGNOSIS of BIOCOMPATIBILITY DIAGNOSIS- CHARACTERISTICS of the DISEASE N CLINICAL FINDINGS N PATHOLOGIC FINDINGS DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS- to distinguish, differentiate SYNDROMES- combinations of signs & symptoms
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DIAGNOSIS of BIOCOMPATIBILITY CLINICAL FINDINGS N SIGNS, SYMPTOMS, LABORATORY TESTS, PATIENT HISTORY PATHOLOGIC FINDINGS N GROSS/MICROSCOPIC N LABORATORY TESTS N SPECIAL TESTING- CHEST X-RAY, CT, MRI and other imaging techniques
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DIAGNOSTIC PATHOLOGY of IMPLANTS PATHOLOGIC FINDINGS-MORPHOLOGIC N GROSS- DESCRIPTIVE- “liver-like, hard, soft, fibrotic, necrotic” N MICROSCOPIC - DESCRIPTIVE- “fibrotic, calcific, neoplastic, necrotic, apoptotic, pyknotic” N CLINICAL LAB FINDINGS- QUANTITATIVE- K + level, cholesterol level, BUN, LDH, serum IgG, urine glucose, CSF, Blood count or CBC, differential blood count etc. Most of this is automated.
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DIAGNOSTIC PATHOLOGY of IMPLANTS PATHOLOGIC FINDINGS- GROSS N Removal of organ or tissue- actually called an explant N Examination using eyes N Report
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GROSS EXAMINATION Tissues removed from the body for diagnosis arrive in the Pathology Department and are examined by a pathologist, pathology assistant, or pathology resident. Gross examination consists of describing the specimen and placing all or parts of it into a small plastic cassette which holds the tissue while it is being processed to a paraffin block. Initially, the cassettes are placed into a fixative, usually 10% buffered formalin.
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GROSS PATHOLOGY HEMORRHAGE and CLOT
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GROSS PATHOLOGY AORTIC STENOSIS- Calcification
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GROSS PATHOLOGY PROSTHETIC VALVE FAILURE
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GROSS PATHOLOGY VASCULAR GRAFT FAILURE
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HISTOLOGIC EVALUATION of BIOMATERIALS & TISSUES FIXATION PROCESSING EMBEDDING SECTIONING STAINING MICROSCOPY
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TISSUE PROCESSING Once the tissue has been fixed ( formalin ), it must be processed into a form in which it can be made into thin microscopic sections. The usual way this is done is with paraffin . Tissues embedded in paraffin, which is similar in density to tissue, can be sectioned at anywhere from 3 to 10 microns, usually 6-8 routinely. The technique of getting fixed tissue into paraffin is called tissue processing .
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EBME 306 LECTURES 1-2 FALL-2008-ZIATS compressed -...

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