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L12CmpdCrStXRD145s09

L12CmpdCrStXRD145s09 - Lecture 12 Compound Crystal...

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Lecture 12, spring 2009 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University Reading assignment : C&R §3.6-3.7; §3.17-3.18; §3.20; OGC pp. 868-871; §21.3 Learning objectives: Understand how radius ratios influence coordination number in ionic compounds Recognize several cubic compound crystal structures Understand the difference between single crystals and polycrystalline materials Understand how x-ray diffraction can reveal the structure of crystalline materials Lecture 12: Compound Crystal Structures; Polycrystals; X- ray Diffraction
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Lecture 12, spring 2009 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University Ionic Compound Formation Anions – negatively charged Larger than the unionized atom Cations – positively charged Smaller than the unionized atom Attraction Anion – cation Repulsion Anion – anion Cation – cation - + - - + +
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Lecture 12, spring 2009 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University Ionic Compound Formation [C&R §3.6] Stable ionic crystals … … maximize cation-anion contact … minimize anion-anion & cation-cation contact 2-dimensional illustration of the concept of stability: C&R Figure 3.4
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Lecture 12, spring 2009 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University Coordination Number Based on Radius Ratios [C&R §3.6] (from C&R) 3.3
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Lecture 12, spring 2009 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University Ionic Compound Formation [C&R §3.6] Recall trends: r from top to bottom of a column r as valence anions usu. larger than cations
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