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L1415OChem145s09 - Lectures 14 15 Introduction to Organic...

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Lectures 14-15, spring 2009 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University Reading assignment : OGC §7.1-7.4; §7.6 (excluding reactions); C&R §4.1-4.2 Learning objectives: Recognize organic molecules of the following types and sketch their structures: Alkanes Alkenes Alkynes Alcohols Ethers Aldehydes Esters Ketones Carboxylic acids Amines Amides Haloalkanes Aromatic hydrocarbons Distinguish isomers of organic molecules Constitutional isomers cis-trans isomers Lectures 14 & 15: Introduction to Organic Chemistry Figures marked “from Solomons” are from T. W. Graham Solomons, Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry, Fifth Ed. John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1997. 1
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Lectures 14-15, spring 2009 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University Categories of Organic Compounds C x H y alk a nes: C-C single bonds alk e nes: C=C double bond alk y nes: C C triple bond C x H y O z alcohols, aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ethers, ketones, esters C x H y halogen z chlorides, bromides, etc. C x H y N z amines C x H y N z O w amides 2
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Lectures 14-15, spring 2009 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University Characterized by C-C single bonds Chain alkanes: C n H 2n+2 a.k.a. normal alkanes sp 3 hybridization of C 4 single σ bonds to each C — saturated rotation about the σ bond Alk a nes [OGC §7.2] Note: hydrogen forms only one primary bond OGC Figure 7.2 7.2 3
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Lectures 14-15, spring 2009 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University Cyclic alkanes: C n H 2n cyclopropane, cyclobutane, cyclohexane, etc. Alk a nes [OGC §7.2] OGC Figure 7.6 4
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Lectures 14-15, spring 2009 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University Branched alkanes: C n H 2n+2 Alkane-like side groups Drop -ane and replace with –yl Alk a nes [OGC §7.2] 7.2 5
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Lectures 14-15, spring 2009 ENGR 145, Chemistry of Materials Case Western Reserve University Rules for naming alkanes Find longest C-chain Number the C atoms Identify the side groups (if any) If more than one identical alkyl group is attached to the chain, identify the number using a prefix di- (two), tri- (three), tetra- (four), penta- (five) , etc.
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