10-20 - Geography 1111 10-20-08 Physical and Chemical Soil...

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Geography 1111 10-20-08 Physical and Chemical Soil Properties 1. Basic terms 2. Physical properties of soils 3. Soil Chemistry a. Cation exchange capacity b. % base saturation c. soil acidity (pH) Basic Terms Soil: unconsolidated surface material made of mineral and organic matter, formed by interactions between climate, geologic substrate, and organisms o Upper ~3-6 inches o Mineral and biological components o Place where all these things come together (worms, roots, ants, etc), coming together of atmosphere in one place. o Substances rearranged vertically Parent Material: mineral matter soil is made from. (Bedrock below surface) o i.e. granite, basalt(found in Hawaii, rich soil, primary minerals), floodplain(everytime a river floods contains sand and silt and clay with it, helps enrich environments), beach sand Organic material: dead plant and animal matter in soil. (not all dead, but decomposing plants and animals—adds nutrients to soil) o Litter—undecomposed OM—i.e. leaves and plants o Humus—partially decomposed OM—dark brown/black muck-doesn’t
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10-20 - Geography 1111 10-20-08 Physical and Chemical Soil...

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