test 1 review - Terms and Concepts to Review for Test 1...

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Terms and Concepts to Review for Test 1 GEOG 1111 Systems--what is a system? how do open and closed systems differ? what is feedback and how do negative and positive feedback differ? what is dynamic equilibrium? how do these concepts relate to physical systems we have talked about in class? Latitude and longitude B know the basic grid system for both latitude and longitude Time and time zones B know how to convert between two different time zones in the Western Hemisphere (not crossing the International Date Line), given their base longitude (a multiple of 15 ° ) Earth-sun geometry B aphelion and perihelion; earth's motions, circle of illumination; reasons for seasons (rotation, revolution, tilt of axis, parallelism of axis); variation in intensity of solar radiation with latitude and with seasons; equinoxes and solstices (dates; earth's position with respect to the sun; declination; day length on Equator, on Arctic and Antarctic Circles); seasonal variation in sun angle and day length Atmospheric structure B what is weather and climate? homosphere and heterosphere; composition of the atmosphere; ozone and ultraviolet radiation; what are the causes and consequences of ozone depletion? how does air pressure change with increased altitude in the atmosphere? thermal layers of the atmosphere (troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere)-- where is each? describe temperature change with height in each layer Energy--types of energy; what is temperature? what is heat? heat transfer mechanisms (conduction, convection, evaporation/condensation, radiational transfers)--what is each, in what type of substance does each occur, and for phase changes of water, is latent energy released or absorbed by water molecules?
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