9-23 & 9-25 & 9-30

9-23 & 9-25 & 9-30 - Sensory Systems...

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Unformatted text preview: 9-23-08Sensory Systems: Olfactory•Chemical particles float through air to noseoParticles by mucus in nose•Olfactory cilia: small hair-like cells located in upper part of nasal passage that detects smell. Have around 40 million in nose. Dogs have 1 billion in nose. •Transmit info directly to olfactory bulb: in front of brain, above nasal cavity. •Can distinguish between around 10,000 smells. •Bad at naming smells•Mothers recognize scent of infants•Infants prefer smell of mother’s breast milk/amniotic fluid •Partner recognizes smell of romantic partner •Pheromones: chemical signals found in natural body scentsoSignals to other animals about mating, fighting, territory i.e. dogs peeing on things, cats rubbing face on things. •Are humans affected by pheromones?oDo give off pheromones, have receptors in nose for them that connect to social/reproductive centers of brain?oMcClintock effect: women in close contact tend to have menstrual cycles synchronize. oDNA and pheromones/smell?CH 5 VARIAT ION AND CONSCIOUSNESSConsciousness•Our awareness of ourselves and our environmentoExternal events, internal sensations, thoughts, feelings and self•Exists on continuum•Not controlled by one brain area, but by patterns of brain activation•Studied with Electroencephalogram (EEG)oElectrodes on scalp measure waves of electrical activity from brain.oWaves differ in amplitude (height) and frequency (speed of occurrence). 4 TYPES OF BRAIN WAVES•Beta Waves:oHighest frequency (13-24 cycles per second), lowest amplitudeoAlert, awake•Alpha Waves:oHigh frequency (8-12 cycles per second), low amplitudeoAwake but drowsy, relaxed, in bed just about to fall asleep•Theta Waves:oLow frequency (4-7 cps), high amplitudeoLight sleep, very deep stages of relaxation, hypnosis•Delta Waves:oLowest frequency (less than 4 cps), highest amplitudeoDeep sleepSLEEP•Biological clock: internal timing that regulates physiological responses over time. oI.E.- Animals in hibernation, periods.•Circadian rhythm: biological clock regulates physiological response over 24 hour period. oTemperature, hormone production/release, alertness, etc. oSet by the sun each day. Natural rhythm is actually not 24 hrs. o“morning people”:go to bed, get up early, enjoy active mornings•temp, Blood Pressure, alertness peak early in dayo“Night people”:Go to bed, get up later, enjoy active afternoon/eveningsTemp, BP, alertness peak later in dayoSome people have no preferenceoCan be disrupted by:Jet lag (each time zone flown through is 1 day to get used to it)•People traveling east have a harder time getting used to time zoneNight shift/swing shift•People are accident prone, stressed•Typically we become sleepy as body temperature drops, wake up as it rises....
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This note was uploaded on 01/17/2011 for the course PSYC 1101 taught by Professor Crystal during the Fall '08 term at UGA.

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9-23 & 9-25 & 9-30 - Sensory Systems...

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