9-23 & 9-25 & 9-30

9-23 & 9-25 & 9-30 - 9-23-08Sensory...

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Unformatted text preview: 9-23-08Sensory Systems: OlfactoryChemical particles float through air to noseoParticles by mucus in noseOlfactory cilia: small hair-like cells located in upper part of nasal passage that detects smell. Have around 40 million in nose. Dogs have 1 billion in nose. Transmit info directly to olfactory bulb: in front of brain, above nasal cavity. Can distinguish between around 10,000 smells. Bad at naming smellsMothers recognize scent of infantsInfants prefer smell of mothers breast milk/amniotic fluid Partner recognizes smell of romantic partner Pheromones: chemical signals found in natural body scentsoSignals to other animals about mating, fighting, territory i.e. dogs peeing on things, cats rubbing face on things. Are humans affected by pheromones?oDo give off pheromones, have receptors in nose for them that connect to social/reproductive centers of brain?oMcClintock effect: women in close contact tend to have menstrual cycles synchronize. oDNA and pheromones/smell?CH 5 VARIAT ION AND CONSCIOUSNESSConsciousnessOur awareness of ourselves and our environmentoExternal events, internal sensations, thoughts, feelings and selfExists on continuumNot controlled by one brain area, but by patterns of brain activationStudied with Electroencephalogram (EEG)oElectrodes on scalp measure waves of electrical activity from brain.oWaves differ in amplitude (height) and frequency (speed of occurrence). 4 TYPES OF BRAIN WAVESBeta Waves:oHighest frequency (13-24 cycles per second), lowest amplitudeoAlert, awakeAlpha Waves:oHigh frequency (8-12 cycles per second), low amplitudeoAwake but drowsy, relaxed, in bed just about to fall asleepTheta Waves:oLow frequency (4-7 cps), high amplitudeoLight sleep, very deep stages of relaxation, hypnosisDelta Waves:oLowest frequency (less than 4 cps), highest amplitudeoDeep sleepSLEEPBiological clock: internal timing that regulates physiological responses over time. oI.E.- Animals in hibernation, periods.Circadian rhythm: biological clock regulates physiological response over 24 hour period. oTemperature, hormone production/release, alertness, etc. oSet by the sun each day. Natural rhythm is actually not 24 hrs. omorning people:go to bed, get up early, enjoy active morningstemp, Blood Pressure, alertness peak early in dayoNight people:Go to bed, get up later, enjoy active afternoon/eveningsTemp, BP, alertness peak later in dayoSome people have no preferenceoCan be disrupted by:Jet lag (each time zone flown through is 1 day to get used to it)People traveling east have a harder time getting used to time zoneNight shift/swing shiftPeople are accident prone, stressedTypically we become sleepy as body temperature drops, wake up as it rises....
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9-23 & 9-25 & 9-30 - 9-23-08Sensory...

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