10-14 & 10-16

10-14 & 10-16 - Memory Ch 7 Processes that allow us...

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10-14-08 Memory Ch. 7 Processes that allow us to record, store, and retrieve experiences and information. o Encoding: recording info into memory o Storage: holding info in memory o Retrieval: getting into back out of memory Memory failure can happen at any of these points Encoding Recording info into memory Encoding is active process o Usually have to pay attention to stimuli to encode them o Memory for stimuli affected by how much and what type of attention Less attention=reduced encoding=less chance of remembering info Levels of processing theory: the more deeply we process information, the better we remember it o Different levels of processing information depending on where we focus our attention. o Shallow level=structural encoding Focus on physical structure of stimulus (font, letter shape) o Intermediate level=phonemic encoding Focus on sound of stimulus (rhyming, vowel type) o Deep level= semantic encoding Focus on meaning of stimulus (definition, synonyms) o Deepest level= self-referent encoding Focus on relating stimulus to self. Rehearsal: process of repeatedly verbalizing or thinking about info. o Maintenance rehearsal: repeating information o Elaborative rehearsal: focusing on the meaning of the info and trying to expand on it o Elaborative rehearsal tends to work better. Visual imagery: creation of images to represent items that need to be remembered. o Can be used to enhance encoding and increase memory o Dual coding theory: encoding information using multiple codes enhances memory. Multiple routes to same memory. I.E. grocery list- remember in list thought and pictures of items.
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Mnemonic device: memory aid o Method of Loci: links things to be remembered with specific places so that places can be used as memory cues. o Allows you to remember things in order o Acronyms: forming a word out of the first letters of words you want to remember.
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