10-30 & 11-4

10-30 & 11-4 - Chapter 9 Motivation o Physiological...

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10/30/08 Chapter 9 Motivation o Physiological and psychological factors that cause us to act in a specific way. o Three theories of motivation Drive theories Incentive theories Maslow’s hierarchy of needs o Drive theory: motivated by drives Internal state of tension that pushes organism to do things to reduce tension Based on idea that humans want homeostasis: state of physiological balance. When bodies are unbalanced, driven to do something to fix that. Problems Cant explain all motivation o Ex. Desire for knowledge Sometimes act without drives o Ex. Eating when we aren’t hungry o Incentive theory: motivated by incentives External goal that has capacity to motivate behavior Motivated by external rewards Big difference between Drive and Incentive theory? Drive theory = motivation is internal Incentive theory = motivation is external o Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (pg. 354-355) Human motives organized in hierarchy, from most necessary for survival to least necessary. Arranged into pyramid with most basic needs at bottom, less essential at the top Must satisfy the needs at the bottom before needs above are activated. Ex. Food, shelter
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(Ignore top level) she only talked about bottom 7 stages Sex: A basic human motive o Masters and Johnson (1960s): first large, systematic study of sexual response Observed volunteers engaging in sexual activity Divided sexual response into 4 phases called Sexual Response Cycle. Excitement Phase: o Sexual arousal begins, escalates rapidly Heart rate, breathing, BP increase Increased skin sensitivity, muscle tension Vasocongestion (increased blood flow) to genitals begins Males o Causes erection Females o Causes clitoris to swell and harden o Vaginal lubrication Plateau Phase: o Sexual arousal very high, continues to build at slower pace Changes from last phase continue, intensify Sex flush for some For men Head of penis darkens, testicles drawn up toward body
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Pre- ejaculate may gather at tip of penis (contains sperm) For women Orgasmic platform (inner 2/3 of vagina expand, outer 1/3 becomes tighter) Clitoris retracts under clitoral hood Orgasm o Sexual arousal/ tension reaches peak o Series of muscular contractions, mainly in pelvic area o For women Consists of 3-10 contractions of vagina, uterus and anal area
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