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test 2 pc - Test 2 Abnormal Psyc ANXIETY Most prevalent...

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Test 2 Abnormal Psyc ANXIETY Most prevalent Read textbook Key Aspects of Anxiety: 1. It is aversive: most important point 2. It is disruptive 3. It has psyc and biological aspects Shuttle Box Example: Turn light on and shock guy Climbs over wall to other side Gets shocked again Goes back and forth Eventually once he sees the light he will jump before grid shocks him. Classically conditioned to associate light with shock Negative Reinforced to escape and avoid the shock Fear: emotion of an immediate alarm reaction to present danger. Rational apprehension. Anxiety: a negative mood state characterized by bodily sensations of physical tension and by apprehension about the future danger or misfortune. Panic Attack: intense fear (panic) occurring at an inappropriate time (in absence of an objective threat). Accompanied by intense physical symptoms. *Figure 4-1 pg 119 Phobia : (specific phobia) present, excessive, or unreasonable fear of a specific object or situation. Irrational in that it does not match the object dangers in situation Must last 6 months Phobic object is avoided or tolerated only with excessive anxiety or distress Interferes with daily life functioning. Subtypes of specific phobia Blood-injury-injection phobia : people with this type almost always differ in physiological responses compared to other types of phobias.
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o Instead of usual surge in sympathetic nervous system activity plus increased heart rate and blood pressure, there is decrease in heart rate and blood pressure, 75% faint o Can lead to avoidance of medical and dental care o 65% of people with this have a first degree relative with it o Peek age of onset is usually about 9 years old Animal Type (animals and insects) o Peek onset is about 7 years old Natural environment type: storms, heights, water o Tend to cluster—if you have one (ex. Storms) you are likely to have another (ex. Water). Situational: public transportation, enclosed places, flying, bridges, etc o Tend to emerge early to mid 20s o Run in families Other types- bug sounds, clowns, choking Phobias are common: 12.5 lifetime prevalence rate 4:1 female to male overall, varies by type If you have one, 31% chance someone else in your family has one (often same type) Theories: How you become phobic? Direct Exp: about 50% could remember some traumatic experience o O.H. Mower’s 2 factor theory Classical conditioning Negative Reinforcement Indirect or vicarious experiences o Modeling: ex parent afraid of dog, shows child dogs are to be feared o Info. Transmission: simply being told or warned something is to be feared Seligman’s preparedness theory of phobias o We are prepared (biologically wired) to become afraid of particular stimuli (snakes, spiders, closed spaces, heights, etc). This part of the theory seems true, we are more afraid of these things.
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