10 - 1/26/10 EARTHQUAKES * A sharp release of energy...

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1/26/10 EARTHQUAKES *** A sharp release of energy resulting in a series of elastic waves propagated through the Earth at the moment of rupture along a fault. The rupture is initiated where stress along the fault exceeds the elastic limit of the rock so that sudden movement occurs. They are also associated with volcanic activity. * seismic waves : pulses of energy generated by an earthquake, that pass through the Earth as shock waves. various layers within the planet *** Types of seismic waves: P wave ( primary seismic wave ): a type of seismic wave, propagated like a sound wave, in which the material involved in the wave motion is alternately compressed and expanded. (the first waves… come from the focus of the earthquake, move through the core) *A compression or ‘push’ wave which moves material parallel to its direction of movement; can pass through solid and liquid material S wave (secondary or shear seismic wave) : a seismic wave in which particles vibrate at right angles to the direction in which the wave travels. (sent from the focus but will not pass through the core) *A shear or ‘shake’ wave which moves material at right angles to its direction of movement; cannot pass through liquid material L wave (surface wave) : a seismic wave that travels along Earth’s surface, but not through the Earth, and at slower velocities than either P or S waves
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10 - 1/26/10 EARTHQUAKES * A sharp release of energy...

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