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23 - H Y DROLOG IC SYSTE MS WATER(H 2O o riginally formed...

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2/16/10 HYDROLOGIC SYSTEMS ** WATER (H 2 O) * originally formed within the Earth & brought to the surface by outgassing , which is the release of trapped gasses from rocks, forced out through cracks, fissures, & volcanoes from within the Earth * collected on surface after earth cooled about 3.8 BYBP * reached present amount, about 1.36 billion km 3 , about 2 BYBP * covers 71% of earth by area * other than gravity, water is the major agent of geomorphic change on the Earth’s surface * Distribution * 97.22% is in the oceans, 2.78% is in freshwater * of this freshwater: 22.22% is groundwater, 77.78% surface * of this 77.78% surface water: 99.357% in ice & glaciers, .33% in freshwater lakes & ponds, .003% is in rivers & streams, .28% is in saline lakes, and .03% is in the atmosphere * Properties of water: * occurs in all 3 states (phases) of matter (solid, liquid, gas) at the T°s found on Earth
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* undergoes phase changes (melting, freezing, evaporation, condensation, sublimation, & deposition) * to change phase energy is either added or released ** HYDROLOGIC CYCLE * the flow of water through the environment; * includes all phases, all 4 of Earth's spheres, & various pathways * Basic cycle : * evapotranspiration (evaporation + transpiration by plants): water is converted from the liquid form to the gaseous form & rises into the atmosphere * condensation: water vapor is converted back to the liquid form (cloud and raindrops) * precipitation : water returns to surface as rain, snow, etc. * after precipitation , water either soaks into the surface, infiltration , or is run-offs ( overland flow) into streams, lakes, & other water bodies * Water Balance: the amount of water in an area based on input (precipitation) minus output (usage, evaporation, storage) * hydrologic cycle, if balanced, provides an adequate water supply for plants, animals, and various processes * water is a major factor in weathering processes above & below the surface, & thus landform development ( Increased water == increased
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weathering ) * How it affects weathering: Infiltration vs runoff subsurface weathering fluvial landscapes regolith formation degradation karst formation aggradation overland flow FLUVIAL SYSTEMS * What is a fluvial system? *primarily this refers to “ running water * rills, brooks, creeks, streams, rivers, & other water moving in a channel or watercourse * may be permanent watercourse or temporary (intermittent) * in arid regions intermittent channels are also known as arroyos, wadis, dry gulches, washes, etc. * running water causes erosion and transport of weathered material * in some cases standing water such as lakes or ponds are included but carryout more weathering than transport, and are more likely to be areas of aggradation * How do they induce change on the landscape? ** 2 main processes by which is induced: Degradation : wear down Earth’s materials and surface: erosion
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Aggradation : the build up of Earth’s surface; deposition ** Some Basics: * start with overland or sheet flow which is the runoff during & after a rain; the water (precipitation) which doesn't soak in to the ground * the runoff collects in channels, usually not permanent, called rills * the rills merge with other rills to form
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