Geog 1113 test 3 - KARST PROCESSES & LANDSCAPES *...

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** Groundwater * 2nd largest potential source of freshwater (22%) * accumulates by percolation through the soil and rock * how well it percolates is controlled by: * porosity: the percentage of the total volume of a rock or soil that consists of pore space (spaces within a rock). Types of pore spaces: spaces between mineral grains, fractures, * permeability: capacity of a material to transmit fluids or how well fuilds will move through it Controlled by: fluid’s viscosity, hydrostatic pressure, the size of the openings, ** water passes through the zone of aeration , a permeable layer ; has a permeability rate > .01m/day ** collects in the zone of saturation , which is above an impermeable layer (rate < .01m/ day) * impermeable layer may be of 3 types: 1) aquitard 2) aquiclude 3) aquifuge easiest to go through hardest to go through * the water table is the upper limit of the zone of saturation * this zone of saturation is an unconfined aquifer : with a permeable layer above and an impermeable layer below * a confined aquifer: has an impermeable layer above and below it, and is recharged in select places * may develop other features: * artesian well : a flow of water onto the surface under pressure from a confined aquifer * spring : a surface flow of water that emerges from underground, not under pressure from an unconfined aquifer. * stream : water flowing on the surface, in a watercourse, where the water table is above the surface; permanent or temporary
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* : water heated to high T°'s; usually associated with recent volcanic activity * ground subsidence : if groundwater is removed in large quantities, surface may react by sinking to fill the new space KARST ***a type of landscape associated with the chemical erosion of soluble
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This note was uploaded on 01/17/2011 for the course GEOG 1113 taught by Professor Hodler during the Spring '08 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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Geog 1113 test 3 - KARST PROCESSES &amp; LANDSCAPES *...

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