Exam 3 Study Guide - PSYCH 477: Exam 3 Autism Spectrum...

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PSYCH 477: Exam 3 Autism Spectrum Disorders (Reading: Ch.10) Autism : Core deficits and diagnostic criteria Triad of impairments: social interaction, communication. Restricted/repetitive behavior and interests Qualitative impairments in social interaction: need at least 2 of these: Impaired nonverbal behaviors Failure to develop age appropriate peer relationships (no interest in peers) Lack of spontaneous sharing of enjoyment/interests Lack of social and emotional reciprocity (profound lack of interst in social engagement; unresponsiveness to other people_ Qualitative impairment in communication Delayed or lack of spoken language (50% have little or no speech)impairment in initiating or sustaining conversation; stereotyped, repetitive, or idiosyncratic language (quality is abnormal) immediate or delayed echolalia, pronoun reversals, neologisms (made up word that has meaning to whose speaking but not to anyone else Lack of varied, age appropriate spontaneous make believe or social imitative play Ex) Jonah had been told to smile when he talks to people, now he does at inappropriate stages: when telling stories of pet dying, smiles; when depressed, psychiatrist cant diagnose b/c he smiles Restricted, repetitive, stereotyped behavior Abnormal preoccupation with stereotyped or restricted interests— commonly seen at all levels (intensity is what differentiates) Inflexible adherence to nonfunctional routines of rituals (arrange and rearrange objects in sequences) Stereotyped and motor mannerisms (rocking, whirling, hand or finger flapping) Persistent preoccupation with parts of objects (not observed before age 3) Prevalence Increase in prevalence (4.4/10,000- 12/10,000) because more aware of autism and more likely to diagnose 1 in 110 children, 1/70 boys Course and predictors of positive outcome Symptom onset in first year, regression or loss of skills during first 3 years Lifespan disorder: specific symptom presentation chances with development: 82%: improved social/communication skills; 55%: improved repetitive behavior Prognosis: poor for academic ach and independent living-only about 1/3 achieve independent living Two most useful predictors: IQ >70 and development of communicative speech by age 5 Gender differences Another mystery: B.G 3.5:1 Common comorbidities (e.g., mental retardation/intellectual disability, epilepsy) ~70% comorbidity of AD and MR IQ and language levels within autism spectrum (approximate prevalence of high/low groups within each, and effects on functioning) Language deficits (expressive, receptive, pragmatic) Echolalia: child’s parrot-like repetition of words or word combinations that she or he has heard
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Pronoun reversals: occur when the child repeats personal pronouns exactly as heard without changing them to suit the situation Pragmatics: approp use of lang in social and communicative contexts
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This note was uploaded on 01/17/2011 for the course PSYCH 477 taught by Professor Olson during the Winter '08 term at University of Michigan.

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Exam 3 Study Guide - PSYCH 477: Exam 3 Autism Spectrum...

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