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Unformatted text preview: PSYCH 477: Exam 2 Chapter 5: ADHD DSM-IV-TR Criteria for ADHD Diagnosis Appear before age 7; occur more often and with greater severity than in other children of same age and sex; continue for more than 6 months; occur across several settings; produce significant impairments in childs social or academic performance Either (1) or (2) (1) six or more of the following symptoms of inattention have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level: Inattention: often fails to give close attention to detail, difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities, doesnt seem to listen when spoken directly to, does not follow instructions or fails to finish schoolwork, difficulty organizing tasks, reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort, often loses things necessary for tasks or activities, easily distracted, forgetful of daily activities (2) Six or more of the following symptoms of hyperactivity impulsivity have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level: Hyperactivity: fidgets, leaves seat in classroom, runs about or climbs excessively in situations inapprop, often has difficulty in playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly, on the go or acts if driven by motor, talks excessively; impulsivity: blurts out answers before questions are completed, difficulty awaiting turn, interrupts or intrudes others Prevalence 4-8% of all school age children in North America Types of ADHD and associated symptoms- Predominately Hyperactive/Impulsive o Describes children who primarily have symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity o More likely to display problems in inhibiting behavior and behavioral persistence o Aggressive, defiant, rejected by peers, suspended from school or placed in special ed classes o Rarest group; primarily preschoolers o 6+ symptoms of H/I, <6 I- Predominately Inattentive o Describes children who primarily have symptoms of inattention o Drowsy, daydreamy, spacey, in a fog, easily confused o Learning disability, process info slowly, find it hard to remember things, display low academic achievement o Anxious and apprehensive, socially withdrawn, mood disorders o 6+ symptoms I, <6 H/I o Primary impairment is inability to voluntarily inhibit dominant or ongoing behavior- Combined o Describes children who have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity impulsivity o More likely to display problems in inhibiting behavior and behavioral persistence o Aggressive, defiant, rejected by peers, suspended from school or placed in special ed classes o Most often referred for treatment o 6+ symptoms of both Common comorbidities with ADHD - 80% ;ODD, CD, speech impairments, mood disorders, anxiety, health problems, tic disorder, accident proneness, risk taking behaviors, peer rejection, bipolar- 1 -- 50% of children with ADHD meet criteria for ODD by age 7+- 30-50% develop CD- 25% experience excessive anxiety...
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- Winter '08