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Exploring Thermo-Chemistry

Exploring Thermo-Chemistry - Exploring Thermodynamics c...

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Exploring Thermodynamics c George Kapp 2004 Table of Contents. II. Thermo-Chemistry 1. Introduction……………………………………………………………………..2 2. State Variables, State Functions, and Standard States .................... 3 3. Standard molar enthalpy of formation. ........................................... 4 Table I…………………………………………………………………………4 4. Standard Enthalpy change of a Reaction ......................................... 5 5. Temperature Dependence of Enthalpy change of a Reaction…..…….6 Example 1……………………………………………………………………7 6. Standard Change in Gibbs Free Energy of a Reaction………………10 Example 2…………………………………………………………………. 10 7. Temperature Dependence of Gibbs Energy change of a Reaction…11 Example 3 ………………………………………………………………… 12 8. Pressure Dependence of Gibbs Energy………..…………………………14 9. Chemical Reactions………………………………………………………….14 10. Change in Gibbs Free Energy for the General Reaction………….. 16 11. Chemical Equilibrium of a Reaction…………………………………….17 12. K, K, and more Ks’…………………………………………………………18 Example 4 …………………………………………………………………..18 13. Review of Gibbs Free Energy……………………………………………..22 14. Phase Equilibrium Transformation Temperature……………………..23 Example 5……………………………………………………………………23 15. Variation of Phase Equilibrium Temperature with Pressure……….25 Example 6…………………………………………………………………….26 Example 7…………………………………………………………………….27 G. Kapp, 6/7/04 1
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II. Thermo-chemistry 1. Introduction. In chapter I. Thermo-Physics, the basic concepts of heat, work, and internal energy were explained along with their relationship to each other. Basic reversible processes, applied to an ideal gas were also examined in some detail. The state variable entropy was defined, and the state functions of Enthalpy, Helmholtz energy, and Gibbs energy were derived. Since virtually all of the above concepts are unfamiliar to most individuals, general discussion with the intent of answering questions of “meaning” and “usefulness” was provided. In chapter II. Thermo-Chemistry, we turn our attentions to some areas of chemistry for which the concepts discussed in I. Thermo-Physics become useful. Questions such as: 1) What heat is evolved in a reaction?, 2) Will this reaction proceed spontaneously?, 3) Has this system reached chemical equilibrium?, will be answered.
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