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Exploring Thermo-Physics (2)

# Exploring Thermo-Physics (2) - Exploring Thermodynamics...

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Exploring Thermodynamics George Kapp C 2003 Table of Contents. I. Thermo-Physics Page 1. Introduction ....................................................................................... 2 2. Temperature ...................................................................................... 2 3. Work .................................................................................................. 4 4. Heat ................................................................................................... 6 5. Internal Energy ................................................................................... 7 6. First Law of Thermodynamics ............................................................. 7 7. The Gas Equation of State .................................................................. 8 8. Speed Distribution of an Ideal Gas… ................................................. 10 9. Internal Energy of a Gas, A Micro View ............................................. 11 10. Specific Heat Capacities of a Gas ..................................................... 14 11. Reversible Gas Processes ................................................................. 16 Isometric Process ......................................................................... 16 Isobaric Process ........................................................................... 17 Isothermal Process ....................................................................... 18 Adiabatic Process ......................................................................... 19 12. Peculiar Results; Entropy ................................................................. 21 13. The Second Law of Thermodynamics and Efficiency .......................... 24 14. We Interpret Entropy ........................................................................ 25 15. Other Functions of State, Point Functions ........................................ 28 Enthalpy ....................................................................................... 29 Helmholtz Energy .......................................................................... 29 Gibbs Energy ................................................................................ 29 16. Interpretations of Enthalpy, Helmholtz Energy, and Gibbs Energy...30 Enthalpy ....................................................................................... 30 Helmholtz Energy .......................................................................... 30 Gibbs Energy ................................................................................ 31 G. Kapp, 5/28/04 1

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Exploring Thermodynamics I. Thermo-Physics 1. Introduction. Thermodynamics is the study of energy change. It is concerned with the equilibrium states of a system, and not by the path with which the system arrives at these states. Yet, once a specific material is selected for the system, how that materials state variables (pressure, volume, temperature, etc.) relate to its equilibrium states, and the work done to move between these states, are also of interest. State variable relationships and work-energy relationships, in some cases, depend on specific processes undergone by the system (path functions), and in other cases depend only on the initial and final states of the system (point functions, or state functions), not on how the system arrives at its final state. The seeds of thermodynamics, in this authors’ opinion, were planted by the engineers first concerned with the dream of a heat engine. The dream was to create a device, which would in one cycle, consume a quantity of heat and produce an equal quantity of work. Today, although we understand that it is impossible to produce an EQUAL amount of work, the study of this “heat to work” energy conversion creates the basis of the science of classical thermodynamics. It is possible to derive the concepts of thermodynamics entirely by sound mathematical reasoning, and many authors do so. Here, we will attempt to include physical models, both MACRO and MICRO, to impart a deeper understanding of the topic. We start with a brief discussion of temperature 2. Temperature. One can hardly hear the word thermodynamics with out seeing a thermometer in one's mind. Truly, this device is fundamental in the experimental world of heat. But rarely do we consider what the device is actually measuring. Here, we will explore that question. The name of Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736) is associated with temperature in the minds of most people. Fahrenheit, a medical doctor, explored the correlation between a patients’ state of health and the value of the temperature.
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Exploring Thermo-Physics (2) - Exploring Thermodynamics...

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