Force (7) - Force c George Kapp 2002 Table of Contents....

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Force c George Kapp 2002 Table of Contents. Introduction; In Search of Vis Visa ……………………………………………2 The First Law of Newton …………………………………………………………3 The Second Law of Newton ………………………………………………………4 The Third Law of Newton ………………………………………………………… 6 Categories of Force Interactions .…………………………………………………6 Gravitational Force.………………………………………………………………… 7 Electro-Magnetic Force.…………………………………………………………… 8 Elastic Force.………………………………………………………………………… 8 Frictional Force.…………………………………………………………………… 10 Considerations in Preparation to Applying Newton’s Laws.………………14 General Application Procedure… ………………………………………………16 Application Examples .……………………………………………………………17 Final Thoughts .……………………………………………………………………24 G. Kapp, 1/4/05 1
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Introduction; In search of Vis Visa . Prior to the time of Galileo (1546-1642 A.D.), science was conducted largely by philosophical argument. Questions concerning the workings of the natural world were posed, answers in the form of theory were supplied, and elegant arguments were also proposed to lend support to theory. In the Aristotelian worldview, experimentation was perceived to be “unnatural” and therefore not appropriate for discerning the workings of the natural world. The cause of motion at this time in history is seen largely as due to physical contact, a “push” or a “pull”. The fact that a rock when released from some height would fall toward the earth was explained by stating “the rock simply went back to where it had come from, the earth”. This event did not involve physical contact; And the observation that the moon was somehow linked to the earth, defied any explanation. The two phenomena were viewed as unrelated. It may be interesting to know that documents of scientific content at this time in history were written exclusively in Latin. The phrase in use for the cause of motion was Vis Visa, the “living force” of motion. The earliest reference to the word “force” is recorded around 1300 AD. Its origin is from old French. It was used to describe “physical strength or vigor”. As we move forward to the time of Galileo (1546-1642 AD.), intellects of that day were still in search of the cause variable, the Vis Visa. Galileo however, brings a new tactic to the dispute of knowledge, the experiment. Galileo believes that experimental evidence, rather than verbal debate, will act as the better jury in the dispute of knowledge. Galileo and other scientists of the day, for the purpose of
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Force (7) - Force c George Kapp 2002 Table of Contents....

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